Изменения, происходящие в системе высшего профессионального образования, требуют поиска новых педагогических технологий обучения, актуализации средств, методов и методических приемов. Особенно это касается сферы физической культуры и спорта. В основе активных методов обучения лежит деятельностный подход. Использование активных методов обучения получило широкое распространение в подготовке кадров для фитнес-индустрии. Большой объем учебных занятий занимают: самостоятельная разработка индивидуальных и групповых программ тренировки, проведение занятия в условиях реальной профессиональной деятельности, ролевые игры.
Ключевые слова: педагогика физической культуры и спорта, образовательные технологии, активные методы обучения, профессиональная деятельность в сфере физической культуры и спорта, учебно-тренировочный процесс.
Changes in the system of higher professional education, demand new educational technologies of training, updating tools, methods and instructional techniques. This is especially true of the sphere of physical culture and sports. The basis of active methods of learning is an active approach. The use of active learning methods is widespread in education and training for the fitness industry. A large amount of training sessions is: the independent development of individual and group training programs, conducting classes in the context of real professional activities, role-playing.
Key words: pedagogy of physical culture and sports, educational technologies, active learning methods, professional activity in the sphere of physical culture and sports, training process.
Changes in the socio-economic situation in Uzbekistan, vocational education and training place high demands on the understanding, development and implementation of new educational technologies. The sphere of physical culture and sport is developing very intensively. In programs of competitions new types of exercise, developing fitness industry have appeared.
New approaches to the design of educational programs and pedagogical technologies in training for physical culture and sport are particularly relevant. Professional activity of specialists in the sphere of physical culture and sports associated with the implementation of an effective training process with different population groups and in different structural units of the industry: high performance sport, youth sport, and physical culture in the education system, improving physical culture, fitness.
Active learning is associated with such organization of the educational process, in which there is activation of educational-cognitive activity of students. It is necessary to consider the fact that enhanced cognitive activity occurs when you use certain methods and techniques, and rationalizing organizational and management tools [1, 2].
The training of professional personnel for the sphere of physical culture and sports is carried out in educational institutions of higher professional education, refresher courses, seminars, and conventions.
The effectiveness of the use of active learning methods in the system of training described and proved in works of many authors [3,4], including in the sphere of physical culture and sports At the present time in connection with a major restructuring of the system of higher professional education, the emergence of new fields of professional activity in the sphere of physical culture and sports, which include the fitness industry, there is a need to conduct analytical studies relating to the use of active learning methods in pedagogy of physical culture and sports.
Traditional teaching methods are aimed at the presentation of the teacher of ready knowledge and the reproduction of disciples. [5, 6, 7, 8].
Active learning methods assume independent acquisition of knowledge in the process of active cognitive activity. All active learning methods are activity based . With the intensification of the learning process is the change in the position of student from passive when should be taken, interpret and present information that outlines the teacher, to the position of an equal participant in the learning process.
The position of the pupil as an equal participant in the learning process, i.e. the «subject» of learning, bound with:
— Development of communication skills, which are formed through dialogical communication in seminar and practical sessions and requires detailed elaboration of the lecture material and working with additional sources of information.
— Ability to solve problems, which requires large amounts of independent work.
— Application of knowledge in practice that are implemented in practical classes, educational and pedagogical practice.
Cognitive activity of students is manifested in the reproduction of knowledge from the lectures; their interpretation is the desire to establish causality in the discussions during seminars; creative activities when you perform independent tasks, in practice, in the research work.
Indicator of activity of students in the classroom is the intellectual and emotional response to the process of learning, the joy of obtaining the result.
The use of active learning methods in the study of the subject «Pedagogy of physical culture» are being implemented through lectures, role and didactic games, performing problems easy.
Undertake this work at a lecture on the one hand allows to enhance cognitive activity of students, on the other helps them to understand how active learning methods can be used directly in working with athletes engaged in physical culture. This allows you to assess the connection between theoretical principles and practical activities, what is the understanding and comprehension of the studied material.
At seminars and practical classes, we used didactic and role-playing on topics: «Structure and content of professional pedagogical competence in the sphere of physical culture and sport», «the Structure and content of educational work with young athletes», «Age features of education in the sphere of physical culture and sport».
The result of the educational games on the topic: «the Structure and content of professional pedagogical competence in the sphere of physical culture and sport» is writing a job description a sports teacher, working in various fields of physical culture and sports. During the game, you need to define the set of knowledge, skills and personal qualities important for a coach in high performance sport, children's coach, teacher of physical culture, teacher of physical education in preschool educational institution, the instructor in physical culture (fitness instructor). The resulting material is in the form of a table that reflects the knowledge, skills and qualities, as common to all and specific to each type of professional activity.
The study of the topic «the Structure and content of educational work with young athletes», suggests the plan of educational work with young athletes the following age groups 7–10 years, 11–14 years and 15–16 years. The work plan should include activities undertaken with systematic training and types of educational work at the camp. In preparation for the competition. Sports depend on sports specialized group. The most interesting and informative pass this game in groups where merged several specializations. The study of age features of education in pedagogy of physical culture and sports is students of particular interest. This is due to the fact,that the discipline of «Pedagogy of physical culture and sport» combines the knowledge about age peculiarities of the personality obtained in the study of physiology, anatomy, psychology, biomechanics and other. To ensure that future specialist will be able to build the educational and training process it is necessary integral knowledge of man.
Active training methods are also effectively used in the training of trainers on children's fitness at training courses and seminars. These types of training in demand by professionals who have practical experience or physical education teacher or coach sport, etc. Important for these professionals to get an understanding of the nature and characteristics of work in the fitness industry, which is not related to the achievement of high sports result, and has as its objective the promotion of health, development of motor skills appropriate to the individual characteristics of the child, his social adaptation and integration.
Feature of work with children in fitness clubs that «hold» the child in the classroom can only toms lake if these classes interesting, useful and popular.
Therefore, experts are faced with the problem of how to make a program popular, what metrics you need to consider how to inform the children and parents.
Trained children's instructors for refresher courses consists of theoretical (about 20 %), teaching (30 %), practical (50 %) and test (exam). Such a large amount of methodical and practical training is that training people come with General theoretical knowledge and experience in the field of physical culture and sports, so they need to learn how to build interesting programs for children. Based on their interests and age peculiarities.
The entire lecture course is built in such a way that the lecture is usually devoted to any particular development in a particular age period, or a particular type of software used in the fitness clubs.
On the methodological lessons to understand the specific teaching technologies of building classes, use of equipment, music, the basics of learning the movements.
The greatest interest cause practical classes, which pass in the form of pedagogical analysis lesson developed by one of the listeners.
The task for drafting of the lesson, each student gets a after theoretical and methodological studies. He then conducts a full lesson with a group of students and then conducted pedagogical analysis of the lesson.
In the analysis all students need to assess:
The novelty of this lesson
— Matching the lesson to the age peculiarities
— As a selection of exercises and their sequence
— The necessity and sufficiency of using children's fitness equipment, musical accompaniment
— The accuracy of the teams
— The accuracy and correctness of the explanation and demonstration of exercises
— Appearance of an instructor
The rationality of control group
— Rational use games, of games, storylines
After the practical exercise, all trainees become like the authors of the lessons and their participants, as well as have the opportunity to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed programs. As a result, they learn the technology of the various lessons that can identify those key things to make a children's fitness program popular and in demand will be difficult. This justifies a large amount of practical, interactive sessions on professional development courses and workshops for children's fitness instructors.
Knowledge and understanding performance criteria of children's fitness programs allows instructors to hold not only group but also individual work with children.
Thus, the use of active methods of training in «Pedagogy of physical culture» allows not only to enhance cognitive ability of students and trainees, but also increases their interest in the development of training material. This is because active learning methods allows to understand the causal connection between theory and practical activity of a specialist.
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