Methods of formation of lexical skills in teaching English language are examined in this article. The author offers different types of tasks for the development of oral and written forms of communication. Special attention is paid to the formation of lexical abilities and skills, as this requires knowledge of situational, social and contextual rules.
Keywords:foreign language, relevance, connotation, technology, semantization, structural and speech samples.
The role of the language for learning a foreign language is just as important as the role of grammar. After all, the vocabulary is transmitted directly to the object of thought by virtue of its nominative function. In a lively speech, lexical and grammatical skills are inseparable: grammar organizes Dictionary, resulting in formation of a unit of meaning — the basis of any speech activity.
The purpose of foreign language teaching is to develop oral and written forms of communication.
Possession of foreign language vocabulary in terms of semantic precision, synonymous of wealth, the adequacy and appropriateness of its use is an essential prerequisite for the realization of this objective [3, p. 287].
The formation of lexical abilities and skills while taking into consideration the information formally structural nature, knowledge of situational, social and contextual rules.
Over the course of training on discipline «Foreign language» students should learn the meaning and form of lexical units and be able to use them in different situations of oral and written communication, learn to understand a lexical unit on listening and reading.
It is well known that, in the exercise of speaking and writing must have the following skills, abilities and knowledge:
‒ reproductive skills;
‒ receptive skills (listening, reading);
‒ socio-cultural knowledge and skills in the vocabulary;
‒ linguistic knowledge of vocabulary [3, p. 288].
Let's look at the methods of formation of lexical skills of speech when teaching English and answer the following questions: How to teach words so that they are remembered and never disappeared after a month? What is the essence of lexical skill and how to determine the content of learning vocabulary? [5,p.83]
When memorizing new lexical units students should pay special attention to phrasal verbs where the preposition radically changes the meaning of the word, for example: get along, get up, get off, get by, etc. When you use phrasal verbs in speech is necessary to pay attention on those associations that the word invokes, its social implication.
E. N. Solovova proposes to consider the example of the word «moist», «damp» and «wet». They can all be translated into Russian as «wet» but one of them neutral, the other has a strong positive connotation, while the third is negative.
You can say «pleasantly moist», but «pleasantly damp» sounds absurd. The words «notorious» and «famous» different Connotation, and interchangeability is almost impossible, though the word associated with the concept of fame.
Speaking about the use of the word, we mean not only its connotation but also the management in the proposal. For example, the word «to like» can be used both with infinitive constructions «to like to do sth» and the gerund «to like doing sth», while its synonym «to enjoy» is used exclusively with the gerund. The verb «to climb» (climbing) requires direct control of the English language, and the verb «to listen» (listen) (compare: «to hear» (to hear)) is almost never used without the preposition «to», which is the opposite of the use of similar words in their native language. The use of the term also implies knowledge of the most typical collocations with other words, i.e. the so-called collocations («collocations»). So nouns «decision» and «conclusion» require the use of different verbs (to make a decision, but to come to a conclusion).
The word possession is an essential prerequisite of speaking, but the reproductive kinds of speech knowing only the meaning of the word is not enough; it performs no less important a possession of words and relationships education on the basis of their collocations.
«To know a word means knowing its form, meaning and usage. Speaking about the forms of speech, referring to its sound shape, without which it is impossible to properly understand the word from the hearing and to adequately articulate it myself, as well as graphical form, without which the word would not be recognized when reading and cannot be written. Words may have multiple meanings as to the meaning as in English so in any other» [5, p.83].
As you know, there are certain principles of selection of vocabulary: a thematic selection, frequency, prediction error on language interference, semantic selection, the principle of compatibility, the principle of stylistic unboundedness, as well as the principle of derivational value. It refers to the selection of a rather limited number of special words and expressions, without which communication is not possible on a particular topic.The frequency is determined with the help of a number of dictionaries, textbooks and reference books.
The forecasting error in linguistic interference helps to select the lexical minimum necessary for proper and idiomatic expressions of the thoughts of the student. In the transmission of their thoughts he tries in foreign language activities guided by the volume and systems of meanings of words and phrases of the native language, to construct sentences on structural speech patterns, peculiar to the native language. Why trying to determine what the most used and valuable communication lexical units can be transferred into English the most communicative and valuable lexical units of Russian language, diverge in their semantic structure or structural-speech models with appropriate words, expressions and structures of English.
Semantic selection. Selected words should express the most important concepts corresponding to the studied topics of oral and written speech.
The principle of compatibility. The value of the vocabulary is determined by its ability to combine with other words. The higher the compatibility of the word, the more communicative it is valuable. The principle of compatibility should also be understood in the sense that the words were distributed on the courses in the order in which they could be best with each other. For example, with the verb «read» were included such adverbs as «out loud», «loudly», «fast», «slowly» etc. And, Vice versa, was not included these words, which can not help but enter into combination with any of the words (or with a very limited number of words) at this stage.
The stylistic principle of unboundedness is the principle of belonging of the word neutral, literary, colloquial, book — written language. According to this principle, the percentage of the vocabulary increases with the course: the younger course, the more neutral style vocabulary.
The principle of word-formation values are the principle of the ability of words to form new words with prefixes, affixes.
The untranslatable ways of semantization are:
1) Display of items, gestures, actions, pictures, drawings, transparencies, etc.;
2) Disclosure of the meanings of words in a foreign language, which can be used:
a) Definition (definition) — a description of the meaning of the word;
b) Enumeration, for example: dogs, cats, cows, horses, pigs are animals.
c) Semantization using synonyms or antonyms;
g) Definition of the word based on contextual guesswork, knowledge of facts, for example: William C. Campbell was given the Nobel Prize for medicine in 2015.
e) Determining the meaning of the word based on its internal form. For example, well-known and familiar derivational basis elements: words similar in spelling and sound in his native tongue: patriot, etc.
Transfer ways of semantization are:
1) Replacing the word (or phrases turnover) corresponding equivalent of the native language;
2) Translation — the interpretation, in which in addition to the equivalent in the native language learners communicate information about the coincidence (or divergence) in the amount of value [3. p. 298,299].
All students write down foreign words in their vocabulary. In English there are two words corresponding to the Russian word «dictionary» «dictionary» and «vocabulary». Students write down only learned known words, and thus it is their own «vocabulary». Dictionaries have several columns: a foreign word, synonyms, antonyms, phrases, sentences with learned words and Russian translations.
The teacher needs to impart skills of independent work of students with a dictionary. How to do it? You can take any noun and studied to compete, who will choose the greatest number of adjectives and verbs related in meaning.
The same task, but with an adjective or a verb completely changes the choice of words.
You can think of an Association scheme on various topics or situations and to accompany them with words, you can draw pictures (a room with furniture, a person in a particular situation) and sign them in words all the details that you can provide, be called and so on.
We can do without pictures. Try to do it mentally or in writing, compare your choices with other team members.The psychological component of learning content vocabulary is related to the problem of lexical skills. After Professor R. K. Minyar-Beloruchev let’s define the essence of lexical skill as the ability:
—instantly trigger from long-term memory a standard word depending on the specific speech task; to include it in the speech chain.
For this we have to remember that the words exist in our memory not in isolation but included in a complex system of lexical and semantic relations, which integrates two types of structural relations at the level of lexical units of paradigmatic and syntagmatic [5, p.86,87].
Exercises that provide initial consolidation of vocabulary should be included in the General system of exercises designed to develop skills and habits use vocabulary in listening, speaking, reading and writing [3, p. 300].
1) Primary sound presentation of the word is the pronunciation of a new word by the teacher (speaker). The purpose of this stage is to familiarize with the pronunciation of this word and preparing students for the reproduction of this speech in the course of the subsequent work on it.
2) Replay word students are repeating the words after the teacher (speaker). The word is not a simple imitation, but a conscious articulation of sounds included in the sound shell of a word, since any new word proposed by students, should contain only learned sounds.
3) Semantical and second presentation of words. Beginning to work on word. As you know, there are several ways to discover the meanings of words, the choice of which is determined by the word itself. However, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of words school vocabulary (which to be active) you can semanticize without translation methods, and the teacher often resorts to these methods of semantization. It helps to establish a direct link between the foreign word and concept. Semantization can be combined with a secondary presentation of a word, but in context (the situation).
There are six the most common ways of semantization:
‒ use of visualization;
‒ semantization with synonyms / antonyms;
‒ semantization with using of know ways of the word building;
‒ can translate the word and ask the students to find a word in the dictionary, various dictionaries;
‒ development of a language guess through the context.
Experience shows us that if a student said a new lexical unit several times during a lesson, the teacher listens to her playing, and his teammates, the student is sure to reproduce lexical material even after school. This approach requires from the teacher utmost attention to the choice of exercises. Let's look at a number of exercises with tasks (at the level of the word).
Express the same as with a word. (Say in one word).
For example, giving a definition of the word «textbook», you can simply say that all the students go to the library to take it and prepare for classes.
Choose synonyms / antonyms of a given word. For example: freedom (liberty), definite (indefinite).
Choose words from the most general meaning. For example: temple, mosque, church.
Arrange words in a particular principle or attribute. For example: all nouns or verbs.
Find a word which does not fit into this group. Choose the odd man out. For example: a dog, a cow, a pig, a notebook.
To establish as many one-root words.
There are exercises at the level of the word combinations or phrase.
Create / select the word combinations to the proposed words. For example: with, to, on, hooked, obsessed, addicted, to be, fast food, drugs, a man, a book.
Connect disparate words in such a way to get idioms / proverbs / sayings and so on. For example: speak, actions, than, louder, words. — Actions speak louder than words.
Choose a single noun as many adjectives and verbs. For example: a dog (to protect, feed, protect), (evil, good, thoroughbred, hazardous).
There are exercises at the level of supply and super-phrasal unity.
Answer the questions. For example on the topic: «Classifications of animals». How many classes of domestic animals do you know? or Why are farm animals important to man? or Do all farm animals supply us with food?
Put questions to the selected words / write questions, answers to which can be given words or phrases. For example: publish, two, year — How many books about animals were published last year?
Complete the following sentence. For example: Flesh-eating animals (like tigers/lions) have strong grinding teeth to … (to chew the meat and bones)
Connect disparate parts of sentences into a coherent text. For example: When you describe an animal, you have to think of its most outstanding features and describe them in an interesting way; it is silly to say “a giraffe has got two eyes” or “a zebra has got teeth”. Animals are so numerous and so different that scientists have classified them so that it is easier to study them. But it is interesting to say “a spider has got eight eyes” or “a walrus has got two extremely long teeth called tusks”.
Pick up or come up with a title to the picture. Give your definition of the word. Comment the adverb: «Drink milk, children, be healthy». Compare characters, animals, cities, countries and so on. Create a story with these words.
Describe the picture [5, p.96, 97]. For example: Look at the picture and say what parts of the body a pig has.
Thus, one of the main objectives of the lesson is to expand students' vocabulary, as a minimum vocabulary causes a feeling of uncertainty and the reluctance of students to speak a foreign language. Work on the new vocabulary consists of several stages and the initial presentation is extremely important vocabulary. Lexicon must be written in the dictionary thematically. The great importance is the right choice of the way of semantization. It is the disclosure of the word, according to the characteristics of the words (qualitative characteristic of word and belonging to active or passive vocabulary), the level of students' knowledge and the venue for this work.
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