Foreign experience of formation of cluster systems
Сунакбаев Ш. К. Foreign experience of formation of cluster systems // Молодой ученый. 2016. №8. С. 671-673.
In foreign scientific literature emergence of concept of economic space and theories of placement of production is connected with names of the German economists of XIX — the beginnings of the XX century — Johann von Tuenen, V. Launkhardt, A. Weber — founders so-called the «shtandortny theory» setting as the purpose identification of the most favorable placement of the enterprises taking into account minimization of costs of production and increase in profits that assumed the organization of the accounting of transportation costs, labor costs, raw materials, an agglomeration factor. In particular, Tuenen offered the effective tool for the solution of tasks of a choice of a location of production and it introduced into scientific circulation such concepts as «economic space», «placement factors». A. Weber became the developer of the first complex theory of placement of the industry founded on criteria of minimization of costs of production and sale.
The main ideas of A. Weber were stated in his work «About placement of the industry: the pure territory of a standard» — 1909 where classification of factors of spatial placement of production was presented. The theory of economic space gained further development in the neoclassical shtandortny theory of A. Lesh who considered economic space not at the level of the separate enterprises any more, and at the level of economic regions. The regional economic space was represented as the market which formation of borders is caused by development of the interregional competition.
In the middle of the XX century the significant contribution to development of the theory of economic space was made American by the economist Walter Ayzard who generalized all private theories of placement and developed methods of the analysis of an industrial complex, regional production systems and interregional communications. In the 1970th various aspects of development of industrial complexes were investigated in M. Streyt, V. Latam, K. Ritcher's works, etc. As tools the received popularity those years the expenses release model was used. The special contribution to development of the theory was made by the French economist François of Peru investigating problems of deformation of economic space under the influence of its polarization round the leading branches — «polyusarost» having a consequence existence the dominating and subordinated economic subjects who interact not only on the basis of supply and demand in the market, but also in the conditions of the direct or indirect coercion proceeding from the dominating partner.
Ideas F. Peru gained development in works of his pupil Zh. Budvil who was investigating regional aspects of poles of growth and allocated types of economic spaces, including homogeneous, polarized and planned. A homogeneous type of space underdeveloped territories which are polarized in process of economic growth have, and only those regions which have the so-called propulsive branches giving an impulse to development all regional economic system develop.
Development of the theory of economic space in the next years found reflection, first of all, in works of M. Porter who on the basis of the analysis of development of branches of mechanical engineering, textile branch and microelectronics of the USA came to a conclusion about spatial industrial clusters — the term «cluster» borrowed from English literally means «grow together».
The important provision of the theory of industrial clusters of M. Porter is the conclusion that competitiveness of a cluster is provided with existence of four factors: development of the institutional environment, including institutes of the market; conditions of rational use of resource potential — natural resources, a manpower, scientific and technical potential; accounting of requirements of the market; high coherence with other firms working at the market.
The cluster policy as the instrument of stimulation of innovative development started being formed in the EU last decade XX century on the basis of development of close cooperation of production companies, scientific organizations and local public authorities. Such interaction received the name of the principle of «a threefold spiral» which was underlain in a basis of modern development of clusters. Feature of activity of public authorities is that they are urged not to initiate creation of clusters, and to promote formation of favorable conditions for their development by implementation of effective tax, budgetary, credit, customs policy, and also creation of the modern research centers, objects of transport and power infrastructure. For example, if the manufacturing firm needs receiving the credit for installation of the new equipment, local authorities can assume providing a half of the sum of this credit.
63 % of the amounts of financing of development of cluster programs in the EU while on the EU structural funds, enterprise structures and regional budgets 19 %, 7 % and 3 % of the amounts of financing, respectively are necessary fall to the share of the national ministries. The part of initiatives of innovative cluster development is financed by the credits and grants of the European investment bank. According to the analysis which is carried out S. I. Rekord, development of the international cluster systems in a zone of the EU happens in the following directions: — formation of clusters with participation of the enterprises of two and more countries when their structure joins the specialized companies, scientific educational institutions from two countries and more; creation of cross-border clusters which are formed in border regions of neighboring countries; — formation of the so-called globalized clusters which incorporate one or even some multinational companies forming directly a cluster kernel.
In modern conditions it is expedient to carry out further development of technological and production specialization, strengthening of cooperation communications, increase in an information and technological exchange on the basis of network structures what industrial and innovative clusters are. And association in such cluster represents not spontaneous concentration of various technological inventions, and strict system of creation and distribution of new knowledge and on this basis, respectively, new technologies and innovations. The coherence of processes of a clustering, increase of competitiveness and strengthening of innovative activity in fact represents a new economic phenomenon which gives the chance to resist to calls of globalization and to meet the requirements of national development.
World experience shows that formation of clusters especially actively happens in the last decade and so far the clustering captured nearly a half of national economies of the leading countries of the world. Thus in the USA over a half of the enterprises work within clusters, and the share of GDP made in them makes 60 %. In the EU now in clusters 38 % of all labor are occupied. The Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish and Danish economies are almost completely captured by a clustering.
The leading place by quantity of clusters is taken by the USA that in many respects, along with the developed programs of the state support, provides high competitiveness of the American producers of goods and services. At the same time cooperation with neighboring countries on development of the international cluster systems within the integration block naphtha lags behind a cooperation level of development in this area in a zone of the EU so far though there is a considerable advance in separate sectors.
In general, the saved-up domestic and foreign scientific and practical experience is a necessary basis for further development of economic cooperation of member states of the Euroasian integration union. In the conditions of strengthening of the global competition and use of economic sanctions as the tool of political pressure such cooperation should be developed not only in the direction of expansion of a trade exchange, but also in the direction of activization of stable production relations and the subkontraktingovykh of schemes up to formation of joint international cluster systems that will allow to increase competitiveness and to promote in the direction of providing a sustainable development of national economies.