Lexemes varying with the sememes by the area of their utilization, do create a new feature on the basis of this semantics. These meanings are considered to be specialized terminological meanings. The present article comments specialized denominative conjunctions on the basis of examples.
Keywords: semantic specialization, specialized, semantic specification, main concept, finite appearance, terminalization, lexeme, sememe.
Obtainment of new derived meanings by the conjunctions at the second stage of semantic specialization and utilization of the present meaning to define a specific meaning in narow specialization is mostly described as specialized meanings. At this stage we have decided to conventionally indicate these conjunctions as specialized terms. In order to prove the expediency of the term Hoslangan (specialized) to our goals, we shall refer to the definitions of the same (hoslanmoq) term at the Explanatory Dictionary of Uzbek language (EDUL):
“HOS [arabic. ﺨﺎﺺ— special, separate; private, individual]
1 Referred to any item or person, belonging to the same. Bolalarga hos qiliq (Childish deed). Rahbarning uziga hos ish uslubi (Work approach peculiar to a boss. Klara ayolarga hos chiroyli harakat bilan sochini orqasiga tashlab yubordi (Clara has bend her hair as ladies do. U.Hoshimov, Qalbingga quloq sol (Listen to your heart). Chol keksalarga hos boqish bilan bir zum tikildi: — Kel chirogim, nima hizmat? (An old had stared for a few time as all old peope do — Come, darling, what can I do?) Oybek, Selected works. Uziga hos — varying, differentiating. Shahrimiz memorchilik qiyofasi uziga hos guzallika ega (Constructional appearance of our city has its own specific beauty). From a newspaper.
2 Peculiar to a concrete person, being used by him only; personal. Oq otlik Bobur Mirzo yuzdan ortiq beklari va hos navkarlari bilan...tog etagiga yaqinlashib qolgan edi (White horsed Bobur Mirzlo along with his princes and corresponding soldiers... approached the foot-hill. P.Qodirov, Yulduzli tunlar (Starly nights).
Hoslanmoq. to specialize, to adjust. Faqat bu suz.. faqat bir munosabatni — zidlov, kuchaytiruv munosabatini ifodalashga hoslanib qolgan. (This word has adjusted to explain only one relation — adversative, strengthening relations “UTA” [3,414]
We can evidence in both the comments that the word «hos» and «hoslanmoq» mostly carrying the concept of “privacy”, “ownership”, «correlation”. Russian word «modulyatsiya» (modulation) is more appropriate with the word «to adjust».
The term «ihtisoslashgan» (specialized) for the words obtaining the same personified meanings was initially mentioned in «Basics of Uzbek language system lexicology» manual written by H.Nematov and R.Rasulov (- Тashkent: Uqitiuvchi, 1995). Scholars used the word «ihtisoslashmoq» 9 times and underline separate meanings at all the cases.We shall try to comment few of them.
Formational lexemes appearing as a result of division of morphemes and further obtaining totally different meaning authors call as a process of «ihtsoslashish» (specialization). The meaning of a lexeme uynash (to play) [verb+ish=action] being as a derivation of a mould and appearing from a sentence «Bolalarga kushaga uynashga chiqishdi» (Children has gone out for playing), becoming individual in shape, has turned to serve a separate concept in its meaning: “It is provided by the Russian word «lyubovnik» (lubovnitsya). In this context the lexeme «uynash» is ready to mean a separate concept. Words as uhshash, qarash, yunalish, junalish, qulirish, yigilish, tanish, kurinish have specialized, integral meanings and became a separate lexeme. As a result of integration of colloquial units becoming lexical units is an often process”.[1,34] Thus, specialization (adjustment) in formative words had been duly justified by the scholars. We may see it in the example of the word «etakchi»:
1.Leading othersin sense of physical movement. Har bir poda va galaning etakschi boshligi — serkasi buladi.(There alsways would be a leading animal in any herd “Fan va turmush”. Gala boshidagi etakchi urdak allaqanday ovoz bilan churillab, uz etagidagilarni ogohlantirib boradi (Leading duck in the fore-front of the fleet makes some kind of noise and warns others behind him)R.Bekniyoz, Havo yuli (air way).
2. Foreman, leader. Кupchilika etakchi, katta-kichikka baravar, qandini ursin! (May all be a leaer, equal to everyone!) N.Maqsudi, Umidli bola (Hopeful fellow). Nazira Yuldosheva yirik hujalikning jonkuyar etakchisi. (Nazira Yuldosheva is a fore-person of a big farm) “Uzbekiston quriqdari».
3. hos Designation. “Kamolot ” etakchisi. [2,17]
As it may be seen, the third meaning of the word is a specialized meaning and explains a concrete designation. We can provide second meaning as a personified meaning of the first one.
Conceptual specialization is met not only in formatives, but is met in underlying words as well:
1 digit 7 and any digit expressed by this digit, amount.
2 ethn. An event organized on the seventh day after the death.[2,19]
As an event is related to the seventh day, it has obtained not an homonic but a polysemantic relation with lexeme Etti.
- To untie, to release.
- To release the mowing.
- To take a cloth from its place.
- To take a tied thing, to release a thing.
- To pay through a plastic card.
- hosМathemathic equation, to solve equation, to find an answer, to note. [2,21]
1 To stay next to each; to approach.
2 hosTo approach to a concrete work from a specific point of view.[2,39]
Noting that terms and terminologization are the essential ways of lexeme formation, authors underline conceptual specialization of terminalisation as one of important ways. “If colloquial derivations are explained from a specific point of view by a specific sphere and if their meaning is specialized (adjusted (hoslansa) — G.Т.), such derivation do become a separate lexeme (term) of a language. Particularly, if the verb singishmoq (accommodate) is loaded with particular concepts in biology and linguistics, it provides a meaning of a Russian word “assimilation” (to digest — in biology: sound staying next to each other becoming similar — in linguistics). According to such personal meanings all the terms do compose separate lexemes”.[1,35] In our opinion, the word «singishmoq» is a poly-semantic word, whereas its terminological meaning has specialization in physiology and linguistics. Indeed, a semic element connecting this terminological concept and «singishmoq» lexeme is very solid and everlasting.
Especially, the following opinion of the scholars has an immense methodical essence in revealing the aspects of conceptual specialization. Dictionary contains 4 general and 1 specialized meaning of the word «tana» (body) and examples for this:
1)a person with huge body;
2)body temperature of body;
3)his body would never feel any pain;
4)an elm with huge stem. in examples 1–3 the sememe is presented in various concepts but meaning (“a body part between head and legs”).
As in all 3 examples the lexeme is in similarity with words as head, neck, leg, hand. But in the forth example the lexeme is in paragmatic relations with words as branch, root, leave. This proves that the lexeme to be a separate term and while being used in one area provides totally different meanings. I.e. in combination «tanasini kesmoq» (to cut the body) there are two lexemes, but provide totally different meanings. Appearance in a similar area, but reservation of a specific concept and function do represent language units being an independence of them.[1,54]
Either we can see the same condition in the word «echim» (solution):
- Еchish; еchilish. Boglashda kurmak solsang, oson bular echimi.Bir nogahon gunohning oson bular kechimi.(If to think of the end in the beginning, it would be easy and one shall avoid a sinful deed) “Songs”.
- Resolution of issues, problems and etc. Masalaning echimi (solution of an issue). Mening odatim, hamma ishni, chigalni oldindan obdan uylab, echimini kuzimning oldiga keltirib olaman (My habbit is to preliminary think of any job, and to see the solution and further actions of it). R.Rakhmon, Sizning yoshingizga kiraylik (Let us turn the age you are).
- liter. resolution and the end of contradictions between the heroes of any novel or its events. Romanning echimi (Outcome of the novel). Zotan, har bir asarning tugumi bilan echimi ham bor-ku! (Consequally, any novel along with its fabula has an outcome, though), J.Abdullahonov, Тufon. [2,20]
We think that the proofs and examples provided for justification of the words as bulmoq, qushnoq, ayirmoq, hisoblamoq as words of specialized concept ae quite enough.
We can divide conceptual specialization into 2 types:
1)Conceptual specialization originated as a result of a lexeme transmitted by utilization to express a new event;
2)Conceptual specialization originated as a result of a lexeme transmitted from colloqual aspect into lingual.
Representation of conceptual specialization in Uzbek language has a specific aspect in the sphere of national Independence and spiritual ideology. Along being present for the long past, such events resulted appearance of new conceptual specializations during formation and development of National Independence ideology of Uzbekistan. We shall analyze few of them below.
The word Goya (idea, ideology) is indicated in EDUL in general concept as (“idea, thought, goal on any action”). But its first and third definitions are characterized by being philosophic (1) and scientific (2) specialization:
- Reflecting the reality in mind, describing relation of a person towards it, comprising basics of view, idea or essence leading towards aim, collection of imaginations. Examples: 1.Eski goyava qarashlar ularni yuzaga keltirgan shart-sharoitga nisbatan yashaydi. 2. Yozingiz, mana shu qur'on hurmati bilan qasamyod qilib aytamanki, men uzimning qobiliyatimni shu jamiyatning goyalari yulida tugatajakman. 3. dinning vazifasi — goyava e'tiqotlar tizimini sharhlash, izohlash hamda qayta ishlashdan iborat. It is obvious from the examples that the concept under the word goya stipulates «social» sememe. Due to this feature it differs from the general concept.
Third (second specialized) meaning is much narrower from the philosophic concept: “main idea indicating the meaning and concrete aspect of imaginative, political either scientific work”: Asarlarning halq mulki bulib qolishiga sabab shuki, u asarlar magziga singdirilgan goya kishiliar diliga, ularning istaklariga yaqindir. N.Safarov, Olovli izlar (Burny tracks). Bu novellalar muayan manoda mustaqil «asar»dek taasurot qoldiradi va ayni vaqtda bir-biri bilan boglanib, umumiy asarning goyasi va ruhini ochishga buysundiriladi. S.Siyoev, Yoruqlik (Enlightment).
Concepts can be segregated under this basis. By the degree of utilization: “Reflecting the reality in mind, describing relation of a person towards it, comprising basics of view, idea or essence leading towards aim, collection of imaginations” — “thought, idea, aim, goal on a particular action” — “main idea indicating the meaning and concrete aspect of imaginative, political either scientific work”.
Concept and lexeme can be utilized in one area and context serves as tools to differ them, i.e., let's say, we can not testify verification of a word combination as «goya uchun qurashmoq» out of three mentioned above. Derivation from the word «goya» as «goyali, goyasiz» do hav the same formation. At first glance seems to be that the meaning does not differ from the words as «goyasiz, goyali» in their «reflecting the reality in mind, describing relation of a person towards it, comprising basics of view, idea or essence leading towards aim, collection of imaginations”, “thought, idea, aim, goal on a particular action”, “main idea indicating the meaning and concrete aspect of imaginative, political either scientific work”. But presence of word combination as «bunyodkor goyali, vayronkor goyali» do change our imagination.
The lexeme «vatan» has four meanings:
- Place of birth and residence of a person. Bulbul chamanni sevar, odam — vatanni. (A parrot loves the garden, a person — his motherland). Proverb. U uzoq vatani, ota-onasi, sermehnat, sertashvish, hammavaqt bolalarning qiy-chuvi bilan tulgan katta oilani.. eslardi (He would recall his faraway motherland, his parents, work loving, full of anxious, openhanded family with kids' shouts)... Oybek, Qoyosh qoraymas (The sun would always shine). Tugilgan vatanim — shu Uzbekiston.. (My motherland is this Uzbekistan) Fozil Yuldosh ugli.
- A country of birth and residence of a person.Ona vatan. Ulug vatan. Kishining qadri amali va unvoni bilan emas, vataniga, halqiga qilgan hizmati bian ulchanadi.(Person is not evaluated by his designation, but by his deeds for his motherland and nation). Shuhrat. Shinelli yigitlar (Fellows in coat).
- A place of permanent residence of a person. Kim Qashqarni vatan qildi, kim Enasoy tomonda (Some had made his motherland in Qashqar, some in Enasoy).Mukhammad Yusuf. Taqdir qilgan joyda vatan qilamiz, Ajal yetgan joyda bir kun ulamiz (We shall make motherland where the destiny would lead, we shall in a place when we pass away). “Yusub and Ahmad”. Andijondan Mirzachulga kelib, chulni vatan qilgan, guzani uz farzandi bilgan Ganisher Yunusov nomini halqimiz bir umr yodda saqlaydi. (Having come from Andijan and making Mirzachul his motherland, apprehending a duck as his child, Ganisher Yuosov would always be adored by our nation) «Uzbekiston quriqlari” (Guardians of Uzbekistan).
- Place of residence of a person.Yoshi yigirma beshni qoraladi. Lekin boshida na buyradek vatani bor, na jonida halovati (He would meet twenty five, but would have either a motherland in mind either a soul in body). S. Siyoev, Avaz. Tiktapada turadigan vatani yuq, otasidan qoldan chordevori buzilib, yorilib ketgan. (He would not have any motherland; even his shelter after his father would brake and shatter) А. Qodiriy, Obid ketmon.
- A real place of origin of plants and etc. Uy limoni — butagullilar oilasiga mansub, doim yashil subtropic usimlik. Vatani — Hitoy, Yaponiya, Sharqiy Hindiston“ House-hold Encyclopedia.[2,445]
Out of all only the second one (country of birth) is characterized to be a specialized terms of national independence ideology.
There is a separate role for the denominations presenting concepts of a national spirituality in the denominative units. It also originates combinations as «the word of thought is an independent thought, independent thought, lackage of thoughts». There are following definitions of this lexeme in EDUL:
- Thought on any thing, event or person.
- Any conclusion regarding a thing.
- Comment and advice given in regards to an event.
- Any aim, goal on achievement of a thing or job.
- Comparative investigation of things or events, results of conclusion, decision.
- Concepts, knowledge,mind, view.
- Way of world apprehension.
- (along with эгалик қўшимчаси and suffix -chi). Affiliation of a spoken word to a concrete person.
We can mention that only seventh definition coincides with the national ideological sphere. For example: 1. Yoshlar «yangi fikr», «eski fikr» degan gaplarni yigishtirib.. ulamolar oldida adab saqlashlari kerak. (The youth, reducing their «new idea and old idea» should adore adults and religiouses) Oybek. Selected works. 2. Otamning, ham uzimning qanday fikr va maslak kishisi 'kanligimizni aytib utmoqxhi bulaman (I would like to quote few words on whta kind of person was my father and me. А.Qdiriy, Utgan kunlar (Passed days). 3. Uni uqidingizmi, insof bilan ayting, asarda qanday zararli fikr bor. (Have you read it, then tell me frakly, what kind of negative thought is there in the works)Oybek, Nur qidirib (Quest for shrim). 4. Qishloq aholisi mulla Usar degan ochiq fikrli urta dehqonni comissar qilib sayladi (People of village have elected an average farmer, open minded Usar as a Commissar. M.Urinkhodjaev, Unutilmas kulnlar (Unfogettable days).
We can conclude out of spoken that lexemes vary from the sememe with their area of utilization and ability to form a new aspect on the basis of their concept. Such meanings are specialized terminilogical meanings whereas there is linkage among derivative meaning with principal meaning, there is strong semic «tie» among them. Lexeme may easily be realized as in principal as in derivative meanings while both meanings can be easily read by the reader. This also proves derivative concept being an independent.
- Nematov H., Rasulov R. Basics of System lexicology of Uzbek language. — Тashkent: Uqituvchi, 1995. — 34.
- Explanatory dictionary of Uzbek language:more than 80000 words and word-combinations. 5 Chapter. Chapter II. Editors: Т.Mirzaev (head) and others; Language and Literature Institute of Academy of Science of RU. — Т.: National encyclopedia of Uzbekistan 2006. — p.17.
- Explanatory Dictionary of Uzbek language: more than 80000 words and word-combinations. Chapter 5. Chapter IV. Editors: Т.Mirzaev (head) and others; Language and Literature Institute of Academy of Science of RU. — Т.: National encyclopedia of Uzbekistan 2006.– p.414.