Библиографическое описание:

Сыздыкова Г. Т., Жумакаев А. Р. Economical effectiveness of buckwheat cultivation on moisture saving technology in the steppe zone of Akmola region // Молодой ученый. — 2015. — №5. — С. 221-223.

This article presents the yield data of cultivated buckwheat on moisture saving technology. Economical effectiveness of buckwheat cultivation in the steppe zone of Akmola region was calculated based on economicalindicators.

Key words: buckwheat, moisture saving technology, yield, economical effectiveness.

 

Buckwheat is a valuable cereal crop with high yields. In Kazakhstan there are good prospects for the production of buckwheat, the demand for which is growing. World production of buckwheat ranges from 1.9 million tons to 2.6 million tons. The largest manufacturers of buckwheat in the world agricultural market are Russia, China, Ukraine.

158 thousand tons of buckwheat are exported every year.

In Kazakhstan yield was increased to 61.6 thousand tons in 2009, which allowed us to go up to the 6th place in the world market. Potentially the country can easily take the 4th place in the world market for the production of buckwheat [1].

Fig. 1. Gross yield of buckwheat (thous. tons)

Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Kazakhstan

 

By the end of 2013 yield of buckwheat was 83.5 thousand tons, which is 74 % more than in 2012 (48 thousand tons). In 2012, the growth of the gross yield of buckwheat in relation to 2011 was 28 %. The lowest gross yield of buckwheat was observed in 2008, 16.6 thousand tons [2].

For further increasing of the buckwheat acreage and respectively the gross yield of products, it is necessary to carry out research to develop technologies of cultivation and processing. Thus it was decided in 2011 to develop technological cluster for the production of buckwheat products. At the initial stage, during 2012–2014, the experiments to develop moisture saving technology of buckwheat cultivation and determination of optimal harvest date and seed rate in the steppe zone of Akmola region were carried out.

Research methodology. The research was conducted according to the method of experimental work by B. A. Dospekhova [3]. Determination of laboratory germination was carried out according to GOST 12047–85. During the vegetation period the phenological observations were carried out in phases of plant development by the State strain testing method (1985). Yield structure elements was determined by the following formula:

                                                  (1)

where

Nplant — number of plants on 1 m2, pcs.

Ns — Number of seeds on one plant, pcs.

М1000 — weight per 1000 seeds, year.

Obtained results were subjected to initial stage of development and correlation.

The main results of field tests, ie the yield of buckwheat, cultivated on moisture saving technologies are presented in Table 1.

Table 1

Yield structure elements of buckwheat and the average yield over 3 years.

Date of seeding

Seeding rate, million germinated seed/ha

Number of plants before harvest

Number of seeds on plants, pcs.

Weight per 1000 seeds, year.

Biological yield, c./ha

20.05.

2,8

161

11

31,3

5,5

3,0

172

10

31,2

5,4

3,2

179

11

30,4

6,0

25.05.

2,8

164

12

30,6

6,1

3,0 (б)

176

13

30,4

6,9

3,2

182

12

30,8

6,7

30.05.

2,8

172

15

31,4

8,1

3,0

181

15

31,5

8,6

3,2

192

14

31,2

8,4

ЕКЕА05

 

 

 

1,23

 

According to Table 1, the value of the buckwheat yield is affected by seeding date and seeding rate, yield ranges from 5,4 to 8,6 kg/ha. The efficiency of agricultural production can be determined based on crop yields, cultivation costs and selling prices.

Efficiency of agricultural production is one of the most difficult economic categories; it takes into account the whole structure of agricultural work. One of the main indicators of the impact is productivity. With its characteristics, the following economical concepts are distinguished: effect and economical effectiveness. Effect is the result of agro-technical measures. For example, fertilizer has a positive effect on plant growth and development, and as a result increased yield. However, we are not taking into account whether the expected increase in the yield will justify the costs for material, transport and application of fertilizers. Indicators of economical effectiveness are used to solve these issues.

Economical effectiveness shows final effect for using the means of production and living labor, in other words, effective output of total investments. In the agricultural sector this means obtaining the maximum amount of production per area unit at the lowest cost for labor and materials. Economical effectiveness is determined for each agro-technical measure, implemented in agriculture. In agriculture, the effectiveness indicator determines the increase in net product at the lowest cost for the production. [4].

Key indicators of economical effectiveness in agriculture. In modern conditions to obtain a stable high profits it is necessary to pay attention to improve production efficiency. Efficiency of agricultural production is one of the most difficult economic categories, which is affected by the economic laws. For the calculation of the economical effectiveness, it is necessary to know the key indicators of the production costs, gross production, net income and profitability.

Production costs expressed in monetary terms, it is the material and monetary costs of production. This includes expenses, wages, amortization, taxes and other.

Gross production is produced agricultural production for all season in monetary terms; commodity output ready for distribution or already distributed.

Net income (NI) calculated by subtracting from the gross production costs or net cost.

Profitability. Profitability summarizes the results of agricultural production economical effectiveness. The level of profitability is determined in percent based on the ratio of profit to the full net cost of the product.

Methodology of determining the economical effectiveness indicators. Gross income of agricultural products producers obtained by products distribution. Gross income size directly connected with the product price, volume and cost. Gross income is determined by multiplying the volume of sold products at the price at which it was distributed.

Net income is the difference between the value of gross product and its cost. Also, net income can be calculated by subtracting from gross income the costs associated with the production.

Net income is a source for further expansion, reserves, and it is used to increase fixed assets for the purchase of new equipment, improved technology, and other.

Apart from the gross income and net income, the level of profitability is used for characterization of economical effectiveness. Profitability is one of the economic categories, which means revenue or profit. The level of profitability is determined as a percentage of profits to the amount of material and labor costs associated with the production and sales. The level of profitability shows the production efficiency in terms of profit per material unit and labor costs for the production and distribution of products [5].

According to our planning sheet of buckwheat cultivation the production costs are equal to 34,647 tenge. The average selling price of buckwheat is 80 000 tenge per ton. [6]

Table 2

Indicators of economical effectiveness for buckwheat cultivation on moisture saving technology

Date of seeding and seeding rate

Yield, c/ha

Costs, tg.

Gross production, tg.

Net income, tg.

Yield profitability, %

20.05;2,8

5,5

34 647

44 000

9 353

27,0

20.05;3,0

5,4

34 647

43 200

8 553

24,7

20.05;3,2

6,0

34 647

48 000

13 353

38,5

25.05;2,8

6,1

34 647

48 800

14 153

40,8

25.05;3,0 (ст-т)

6,9

34 647

55 200

20 553

59,3

25.05;3,2

6,7

34 647

53 600

18 953

54,7

30.05;2,8

8,1

34 647

64 800

30 153

87,0

30.05;3,0

8,6

34 647

68 800

34 153

98,6

30.05;3,2

8,4

34 647

67 200

32 553

93,9

 

According to Table 2, the economical effectiveness of buckwheat cultivation was observed in all the variants of the experiment. In this case, the maximum net income and profitability are obtained with a maximum yield of 8.6 t./ha (34 153 tenge and 98.6 % respectively).

 

References:

 

1.                  Rakhman Alshanov. Economy of Kazakhstan over 20 years: agro-industrial field // Kazakhstanskaya Pravda. — 2012. — № 440–441. — С. 6.

2.                  JSC «Regional Finance Center of Almaty Rating Agency». Plant Breeding Industry Analysis // Almaty. — 2014. — С. 23

3.                  Dospekhov B. А. Methodology of field experiments. — М.: Изд-во Колос, 1985. — 321 с.

4.                  Medeubekov K. U. «Kazakstan agrooynerkasibi: ekonomikasin yimdastiru zhane baskaru»// Almaty. — 1990. — С. 164

5.                  Abdildina L. I. Economics, organization and planning of agricultural production // Almaty. — 1989. С. 68

6.                  News Agency «KazakhZerno»: http://www.kazakh-zerno.kz/

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