Библиографическое описание:

Матьякубов З. М. The analysis of defects in written language // Молодой ученый. — 2016. — №12. — С. 1014-1017.

Speech is a means of explaining the idea and is expressed in oral and written form. In a mind occurs with the help of speech, that’s why people contact with each other. Culture of speech means expressing one’s idea shortly, elaborately, simply and clearly in a language.

To leave a strong impression on the listener, it is necessary to know the linguistic rules in order to make the speech clear. Without knowing grammatical structure and vocabulary of a language it is almost impossible to create complete sample of the writing speech. To learn grammatical construction and the contents of the dictionary of a language requires a long process.

Besides composing writing speech grammatically correct, the usage of appropriate words, theoretical knowledge practical exercises also play an important role. One can achieve vital language skills and experiences through practicing exercises systematically [1]. Written speech is a complex process which requires a lot of time and effort. With the help of this written speech writer make a self-observation. In a written speech content of literacy and essence plays main role.

The following requirements are demanded in the written speech:

  1. Every word, every sentence should help to clarify the content and the purpose of the author, moreover speech should be elaborate, have logical consequence;
  2. In a written speech concept should be interesting, expressive and should be smooth and simple in the stylistically point of view;
  3. To pay much more attention to make necessary conclusion on the basis of expressed opinions.

In secondary and secondary special education students do a lot of various practical exercises to develop written speech. In the system of higher education this process has its own characteristics.

In different literatures various types of written speeches are given. The official style of the documents is considered as one of the types of written speech. In higher and secondary special education in students' daily activities there are a number of written works. They include the following: Notes (short abstracts), annotation, abstract, review the application, explanation, act, biographies, recommendations, letters, reports, data [2].

Observations show that high (literacy) level students in secondary education schools after several descriptions can get used to write sufficiently. Students who do not have sufficient knowledge and experience and may come across may difficulties. Therefore, first of all, it is important to give them a sample on the basis of specific concepts. Then to create an opportunity to develop students’ writing skills and help them appropriately to do exercises can be effective for students. For this the readers are required to be a little bit attentive to any kind of writing speech. After reading written application and showing attitude to it (giving feedback to the written application whether it was sufficiently or not) can help to reader for developing literacy and written language skills.

After proclaiming The Law on the State Language of the Republic of Uzbekistan a number of manuals were created on operating business in the state language. Currently, educational and instructional literatures are sufficient on operating business in the state language. For example, the book on ꞌOperating Business in the Uzbek Languageꞌ was first bold step on the sphere of creating complete official documents [3]. The writing standards, instructions, samples, structures and rules of writing official documents have been used since 1990. The importance of the manual is known users too well. Practical guide on «Operating Business» by M. Aminov, A. Madvaliev, N. Makhkamov and N. Makhmudov [4] as a continuation of the work carried out in this sphere today, the book became assistant to all workers and managers, teachers and students in their daily life.

Reminding the need for efficient use of the available literature, written work will be required in the daily activities of the students and it can be a useful for them [5]. following comparative model of applications are given in the Uzbek and English languages.


Application is a document which is addressed to a particular institution or officials on the content of request, complaint or suggestion. In practice, application is the most widely used business paper. School pupils and students, managers and agronomists or farmers, engineers and scientists, businessmen and officials — all citizens, all members of society are not free from writing application. Application writers' age and position, the addressed institutions and government agencies are very diverse. Applications can be addressed to kindergarten directors, principals, public administration, the authority of a district, in general, the application can be addressed to any head of institution which can resolve the complaints [2].

Besides the size, style and type, application has necessary structural components and it is formed on the basis of these units.

The essential parts of the application:

  1. Name of recipient institution or official.
  2. First name, father's name and surname of the sender.
  3. The type of the document (application).
  4. The main body (can be about suggestion, request, complaint).
  5. The supplementary documents (if necessary).
  6. The author's signature, initials name and father's name then surname.
  7. Date (day/month/ year).

It is worth claiming that all the necessary parts of the application are not used completely. For example, when an employee writes application to the manager of a company, information about his place of residence is not necessary. In such cases, the position and the department of employee are enough. Besides that, supplementary documents (attachments) are not required in several applications.

Like any other form of official documents application also should be short and clear. The accuracy of the language of the document can help to achieve to the goal faster.

Application is written mostly with hand and its content expressed freely and clearly. According to the content and style of application is not the same: sometimes it can consist of a few words, and also it can be in the form of a letter which the views expressed on the point of particular issues. Relying on the context, the applications are divided into simple and complex types. Complex application can be expressed with a large text and also it may be attached (supplementary documents) to them. In most cases, the application has personal features. At the same time there also can be business application (letter)s. Business application is a written document which protects the citizens’ and organizations’ rights or interests. Lawsuit Application is one of such kind of formal letters. Request letters complaint letters are used more than lawsuit applications. [5].

Observations show that, although the sample of applications exists they are often ignored, as a result some of the deficiencies are widespread. There are following shortcomings:

1) the name of the establishment of the organization and the leader's name and surname are written inappropriate;

2) application begins with the following redundancy: «The Purpose of the Application is», «This Application Which I Wrote» and others;

3) the text is written stretching excessively, the purpose is not explained concisely and elaborately;

4) stylistic and grammatical errors could be allowed;

5) pointless motions are written: «Please, I ask you», «I beg you», «I hope you will not ignore the application» and others.


Алишер Навоий номидаги Самарқанд Давлат университети ректори профессор Т. Шириновга амалий тилшунослик кафедраси профессори А. Абдусаидовдан


2009 йил 1 июлдан навбатдаги меҳнат таътилига чиқишимга рухсат беришингизни сўрайман.

20.06.2009 (имзо)А. Абдусаидов

To Professor T. Shirinov the rector of Samarqand State University named after Alisher Navoiy by Professor Abdusaidov of the Department of Applied Linguistics


I ask to be allowed to go on next vacation on July 1, 2009

20.06.2009 (signature) A. Abdusaidov

Table 2

АлишерНавоийномидагиСамарқандДавлатуниверситетиректорипрофессорТ. Шириновгафилологияфакултети 3-босқичталабасиАкрамовШералидан


2009 йил 10 июнданУргуттуманидаги «Юлдузча» оромгоҳидатарбиячисифатидаишлашгажалбэтилганиммуносабатибиланфанларданЯкунийбаҳолашларнимуддатиданолдинтопширишимгарухсатберишингизнисўрайман.


  1. «Юлдузча» оромгоҳи директорининг хати.
  2. Ўзаро шартнома нусхаси.

25.05.2009 (имзо) Ш.Акрамов

To Professor T. Shirinov the rector of Samarqand State University named after Alisher Navoiy by Akramov Sherali 3-course student of Philology Faculty


I ask you to allow me to take the final assessments earlier on several subjects because of I was attended as an instructor to the camp named «Yulduzcha» in Urgut district on June 10, 2009.


  1. The director's letter of «Yulduzcha» camp.
  2. A copy of the contract.

25.05.2009 (signature) Sh.Akramov

Figure 1. Formal letter example [6]

According to the example author and recipient addresses are written on both sides of the tops of the page. That means, on the top on the right the senders address and on the upper part of the left side the receiver’s address are given. The next information that must be recorded next is the date. Fourth, greeting is written from a separate new line. The next part of the message is a main body, and it is written from a new line and the content of a letter is given in it. The main contents of the letter should include simple, short and appropriate sentences and after that It will be easier to achieve the goals. At the end of the main part of the letter at the bottom of the body on the left followings should be written: yours faithfully yours sincerely, the from next line the authors signature should be written and after that from a new line authors full name should be written.


  1. Маҳмудов Н., Мадвалиев А., Маҳкамов Н., Аминов М. Ўзбек тилида иш юритиш (Муншаот). — Т.: Ўзбек совет энциклопедияси Бош редакцияси, 1990.
  2. А. Абдусаидов. Ўқитувчининг нутқ маҳорати. С.: 2013.
  3. Маҳмудов Н., Мадвалиев А., Маҳкамов Н., Аминов М. Ўзбек тилида иш юритиш (Муншаот). — Т.: Ўзбек совет энциклопедияси Бош редакцияси, 1990.
  4. Аминов М., Мадвалиев А., Маҳкамов Н., Маҳмудов Н. Иш юритиш. Амалий қўлланма. 3-нашри. — Т.: «Ўзбекистон миллий энциклопедияси» Давлат илмий нашриёти, 2009.
  5. Аминов М., Мадвалиев А., Маҳкамов Н., Маҳмудов Н. Иш юритиш. Амалий қўлланма. — Т.: «Ўзбекистон миллий энциклопедияси» Давлат илмий нашриёти, 2000.
  6. www.google.com.typesofformalletters


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