Today the concept of art therapy has become so broad that this phrase is used to name almost anything that is somehow related to any creative work, bringing it under the "psychological" implications. Nowadays there is a lot of information of diverse kinds from professional to popular. In addition, trends and approaches in art therapy there is a great variety. It concerns how diversity practices and visions of art therapy in general – what it is, what tasks designed to solve, how, by whom and how can be used. In my opinion, such a broad understanding is not in all cases true because art therapy is still in its infancy as a method of psychotherapy, originally applied in clinical practice.
Art therapy is now considered one of the most gentle but effective methods used by psychologists, psychotherapists and educators. Because, there is the pedagogical direction of art therapy tasks, which is the development, correction, education and socialization. These tasks associated with resolving various types of internal, emotional difficulties, which can be any person, including a mentally and physically healthy.
Human creativity is one of the possibilities to penetrate into his inner world and know you. It appeals to the best aspects of our soul, to the most brilliant, rich, and sincere. When a person writes, draws, sculpts clay or Express themselves in other art forms, it allows him to relax, to open up and for a little while to be in harmony - harmony with yourself. In addition, creativity is an effective method for the healing of the psyche, which is now found wide application in practical psychology called art therapy .
The current state of society, the highest rate of growth placing greater demands on man and his health. As you know, congenital good health also requires constant attention, so the challenge teachers and parents to instill in your child from an early age the right attitude towards their health. Children's health is essential and the measure of personal directed education. The primary task of the entire education system.
In the process of development of psychological knowledge, with the diversity of psychologists-practitioners is becoming increasingly prevalent art therapy as the focus of work. Application unusual for school practice the term "therapy" does not contradict, according to psychologists, and consistent with the main idea of humanistic pedagogy, development of creative potential of personality and its power.
The concept of "therapy" is translated not only as "treatment" but also as "care". On this basis, the use of art therapy educators, and educational psychologists, not having any special training in the field of psychological counseling, psychotherapy and art therapy. The phrase "art therapy" in the scientific, pedagogic interpretation is understood as a concern about the emotional well-being and psychological health of the individual, the group or team by means of artistic activities .
Art therapy is one of the softest and at the same time deep tools in the Arsenal of psychologists and psychotherapists. Method of art therapy can be attributed to the most ancient and natural forms of correction of emotional States, which many people enjoy on their own – to remove the accumulated mental tension, to calm down, to focus.
The term art therapy was formed from the English words art – "art, skill" and therapy – "treatment and therapy" and literally refers to as art therapy. The basis for the modern definition of art therapy is based on the conceptions of expression, communication, symbolization, with an action which involves artistic creativity. In addition to this term can be used similar to the meaning of the title: "creativity therapy", "art therapy techniques", "art psychology", "creative therapy", "therapy creative self-expression" .
Art therapy is an interdisciplinary approach that combines different fields of knowledge - psychology, medicine, pedagogy, cultural studies and others on the basis of the art technology used in pedagogy and psychology, is the use of techniques and methods of art therapy. As a method of psychological help, art therapy exists for a long time. It is known that in ancient China to heal nervous shocks practiced drawing characters. For the first time the term "art therapy" was coined by A. hill in 1938, initially, the therapy emerged in the context of theoretical ideas 3.Freud and C. G. Jung, and later acquired broader conceptual base, including humanistic models of personality development Carl Rogers and Maslow.
Currently, the concept of "art therapy" has several meanings:
1) the set of types of art used in the treatment and correction;
2) the complex art-therapeutic techniques;
3) direction and psychocorrectional psychotherapeutic practice;
Art therapy has great opportunities in working with children who have various emotional problems, communication difficulties, and negative behavioral responses. Contemporary art therapy includes the following directions:
• isotherapy - a therapeutic effect by means of fine art: drawing, sculpting, arts and crafts, etc.;
• imagearea - exposure through the image, theatricality, to dramatize;
• music therapy - the impact of using the perception of music;
• the therapy effect by tales, parables, legends;
• kinesitherapy - the impact of using dance / movement;
• correctional rhythm (impact movements), homeotherapy;
• game therapy, etc.
Art therapy is a means of free expression and self-knowledge. She has "insight-oriented" nature, presupposes an atmosphere of trust, high tolerance and attention to the inner world of man. Art-therapeutic work in most cases, it makes people feel positive emotions, helps overcome apathy and lack of initiative, to develop a more proactive stance. Art therapy is based on the mobilization of human creativity, of internal mechanisms of self-regulation and healing. It meets a fundamental need for self-actualization: the disclosure of a wide range of human abilities and approval their individual and unique way of being in the world .
The practical application value of art therapy in education gain valuable experience positive changes and gradually in-depth self-knowledge, self-acceptance, harmonization of personality. And decreases level of anxiety, generated mechanisms of emotional regulation, developing a positive self attitude, analyze their behavior, thoughts and feelings. Art therapeutic methods and techniques are easily mastered, in the future, students can apply them independently.
The use of the art technologies in teaching contributes to the emotional recovery of the pupil, which leads to the expansion of the range of his conscious emotional experiences and expand opportunities of self-discovery. In conclusion, it should be noted that the art-technologies are suitable to work with children with different abilities because they allow each child to operate on own level and to be valued for their contribution individually.
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