Библиографическое описание:

Явминова Н. М. Typical problems of distance learning // Молодой ученый. — 2016. — №2. — С. 873-877.



 

System of Distance Education (SDE) offer equal opportunities to pupils, students, civil and military experts, unemployment in all regions of the country and abroad to realize the human right to education and information. This system can be most adequately and flexibly respond to the needs of society and to ensure the implementation of the constitutional right to education of every citizen of the country. LMS match the logic of the development of the education system and society as a whole, which are put at the forefront the needs of each individual. The term «distance learning» before the end of abode not in the Russian-speaking and English-language educational literature. There are options such as «Distant Education» (distant education), «distance learning» (distant learning). Some foreign researchers have a special role in the telecommunications distance learning, define it as tele-education (teletraining). But still the most frequently used term «distance learning».

Technological bases of Distance Learning in the form of distance education began in the early 20th century. Today in absentia can obtain a higher education, learn a foreign language, to prepare for university entrance, etc. However, due to ill-established interaction between teachers and students, and the lack of control over the educational activity part-time students in the periods between sessions of the exam quality of such training is worse than what you can get at the full-time training. Modern computer telecommunications can provide knowledge transfer and access to a variety of educational information on an equal basis, and sometimes more effective than the traditional means of teaching. Experiments have confirmed that the quality and structure of the training courses, as well as the quality of teaching in distance education are often much better than with traditional forms of learning. New electronic technologies, such as interactive discs CD-ROM, electronic bulletin boards, multimedia hypertext accessible via the Internet using interfaces Mosaic and WWW can not only ensure the active involvement of students in the learning process, but also allow you to manage this process in contrast to the most traditional learning environments. The integration of sound, movement, image and text creates a new extraordinarily rich in its capabilities learning environment, which will increase with the development and the degree of involvement of students in the learning process. Interactive features used in the LMS programs and delivery systems allow the information to adjust and even encourage feedback and dialogue to ensure continued support, which is not possible in most traditional teaching systems.

The main components with the introduction of distance learning are:

                   the introduction of the subject;

                   form of learning;

                   teaching mode;

                   technological means;

                   budget.

As a rule, the introduction of distance learning of a certain level based on the existing infrastructure, including the presence of a base and a traditional educational institution training schemes. After all, most people intuitively see the introduction of new technologies for mechanical transfer of the traditional ways of organizing the learning process to a new technological base. This view can not be ignored in the organization of distance learning, as subjects of the educational process, both as teachers and administrators are people considering distance learning as an extension of full-time study and who know their subject from the perspective of the traditional educational process. Therefore, it is important to determine what is the subject of implementation in terms of learning.

Consider the options:

                   separately taken a training course;

                   Multiple stand-alone training courses;

                   related courses within the educational path;

                   the whole system of distance education in general.

The choice of either option depends very much. If you choose as the subject of the introduction of individual training course costs will be minimal, self-introduction are motivated teacher and specific aspects of his work with his students. In the case of deployment of distance education is necessary to adjust the entire process chain of training, starting with support for a single distance course and ending with the components associated with the preparation and optimization of the timetable, taking into account the various forms of training, all standard and non-standard situations, taking into account performance, relationship courses, etc.. In general, the task is daunting and without will and material support for management can not be solved. The next parameter is a form of education. Traditionally, these include: full-time, evening and distance learning. With distance learning has its own forms of education. A student and a teacher there in the learning process both in parallel, using the means of communication and, accordingly, can simultaneously interact with each other (online), and successively, when the student performs any work independently (offline). Distance learning system can use either the two forms of interaction (parallel and serial), or may be constructed as one principle, and on the other. The choice of form will be determined by specific types of employment, volume of courses and the role of the teacher in it.

The third option — the learning mode. These include modes of interaction of students with each other both within the study group and in the framework of the work in small groups. To technology should include those decisions that affect the delivery of educational material for students, organizing feedback and certification, communication teachers and students and management of the educational process. Strictly speaking, there are technical means of virtually all components of distance learning. Another aspect associated with the regime of teachers involved in the provision and maintenance training courses. Always the teacher is working? Whether it is necessary to ensure that the learning process? We need a teacher to maintain the course or his assistants are needed? How many? Is the maintenance of a constant distance course or through certain time slots (at the beginning of the semester-end)? These are questions that must be answered when considering a particular variant of distance learning. In conclusion, I would like to mention the problems to be faced in the implementation of distance learning courses or distance learning system. These include the need for authors to structure their own courses of study material, will inevitably adapt it to the requirements of the personal computer. For many people (especially in the humanities), this process is not obvious, and extremely painful. The conservatism of the teaching staff — not less difficult problem. It refers to the number of organizational and can lead to fatal consequences for the introduction of distance learning within the school. Laziness technical staff, whose responsibilities include the deployment of distance learning. We are faced with the fact that the person with jurisdiction over technological issues, give an inordinate amount of time discussing the options, instead take a proactive stance. Therefore, for the deployment of distance learning requires a competent person. Countering those charged with the implementation of distance learning. If the teacher introduces the individual components of distance learning, he can say that this should be done within the framework of a corporate standard of educational institutions (and when will this standard, no one knows!), Or that it is methodologically questionable. If you solve the problem within the institution, then surely there will be people (usually really does nothing but love to talk), which declared that all this is nonsense and should be done differently. The need for constant maintenance of the course. Some people believe that, following the introduction of distance learning, it does not require maintenance. This is not so. You will have to convince others of the need for fixed costs in order to maintain and develop the area of ​​distance learning.

 

References:

 

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