As it is known the volume of water reserves is 1 billion 350 million cubic kilometer. 97 percent of water is contained in the oceans. These reserves are considered as a salty water which is unfit for consumption. As it is seen above, only 3 percent of fresh water reserves are drinkable. 2 percent of these water resources are in the northern and southern polar, high mountain glaciers and atmosphere humidity. The main source of drinking water is lakes and rivers which are equal to one percent of the world’s water reserves. Economizing water is one of the most important problems in our country’s agriculture. At the same time it brings to the soil fertility’s fall, excessive usage of water, salinity and obstruction of the soil. Irrigated lands are efficient to the wind and water erosion and it effects on its fertility. Rise of the groundwater’s level, melioration system’s becoming obsolete brings to the salinity and water logging of the land.
Nowadays in our Republic serious attention is paid to the reforms of water management, to the strengthening of the financial-technical base. Advanced methods of irrigation including wide range of works on the implement of drip irrigation technology. The drip irrigation method is effective because it gives opportunity of having stable yield even in condition of limited water resources. In our country, especially in Karakalpakistan Republic, Bukhara, Sirdarya, Khorezm regions water deficiency is in considerable level. and this process is increasing.
This problem can be solved with introducing economical irrigation technologies in these 4 regions. In 2013, totally 3420,9 hectares of lands are implemented with water saving technologies and they are only 0,008 percent of all irrigated lands. Four regions where water is deficient are implemented with water saving technologies in 125 hectares of the land and it is only 0,036 percent of all lands. This state shows that the program of using water saving technologies is not developing in these regions where the water is deficient.
Advances of using drip irrigation system are several, it gives possibility of keeping moisture and water around the plant roots in measure. In addition, it improves ameliorative condition of the land and the rise of ground waters can be avoided, salinity and water logging is not allowed. At the same time demand for the seed, fuel and lubricant, mineral fertilizers is greatly reduced and productivity increases. In many countries use of drip irrigation system in intensive gardens gives positive results. In Uzbekistan experiments in this sphere are effective. It is very important to automate drip irrigation system for simplifying the usage of it.
To avoid extra waste of water, to use water in measure in exact time is main solution of this problem in Uzbekistan. Solution of this problem helps to improve the fertility of the soil, to reduce expenses, at the same time to save water, to have qualified and rich harvest. Scientific-research works are being held on installation of drip irrigation system, creation of the system’s automation and on examining it in several sectors of agriculture. Such researches are being carried out as using drip irrigation automation system to create intensive gardens in the deserts and grassland regions or in the regions with the lack of water.
Advantages of drip irrigation of intensive garden seedlings is easier than simple irrigation. During the day in exact time till enough water is not collected in the root of the tree irrigation will not be stopped and it fully satisfies the tree’s demand for the water. In the summer in hot days it keeps seedlings from dehydration.
Construction of automated system of intensive garden seedling’s drip irrigation is shown in several steps. They are:
- to develop a system in binding thin one-pipe with the main source of water or main pipe;
- to construct water sprinklers around each tree in symmetrical form and to take into account the diameter of each tree;
- to construct a number of filters to supply clean water from channels and pools to water sprinklers. First large hole net filters, then small hole net filters are installed to clean the water. So water is cleaned step by step from various wastes and different types of emissions.
- it allows to economize 40–45 percent of water.
- it helps to reduce demand for the seeds, fuel and lubricants, mineral fertilizers, to improve ameliorative condition of the land and to save water.
Productivity of sprinklers is determined in liter/hour, it means how much water is sprinkled from the water sprinklers during an hour. Experiments show that sprinklers use 1–4 liters of water during an hour. Making water sprinklers requires thoroughness. The works in this sphere are being done. This construction gives opportunity of drip irrigating garden seedlings from 80–120 meters distance.
In the following scheme automated system of drip irrigation in intensive gardens is given: (1-picture)
a) The scheme of automated drip irrigation
b) Works done in intensive gardens on drip irrigation sphere
1-picture. Scheme of automated system of drip irrigation and its notes are given.
As a result of scientific — researches drip irrigation system saves 40–45 percent of water than simple irrigation. Automated pump supplies 0,3–0,7 atmosphere pressure to drip irrigation system and it sprinkles water in equal pressure to 100–200 meters distance. The works on developing scientific-researches are being continued.
1. http://www.biznes-daily.uz/ Инновацион иқтисодиётни шакллантириш шароитида минтақаларда сувни тежовчи технологиялардан фойдаланиш таҳлили.
2. В. Ф. Чебаевского, Насосы и насосные станции 1989