Stylistics is a branch of general linguistics. It has now been more or less definitely outlined. It deals mainly with interdependent tasks: the investigation of the inventory of special language media which by their ontological features secure the desirable effect of utterance and certain types of texts which due to the pragmatic aspect of the communication .
The interrelation between expressive means and stylistic devices can be worded in terms of the theory of information. Expressive means have a greater degree of predictability than stylistic devices. The latter may appear in an environment which may be seen alien and therefore be only slightly or not at all predictable. Expressive means, on the contrary, follow the natural course of thought, intensifying it by means commonly used in language. It follows that SD’s carry a greater amount of information and therefore require a certain effort to decode their meaning and purpose. SDs must be regarded as a special code which has to be well known to the reader in order to be deciphered easily . Various objects, phenomena actions, etc, may possess similar features, which fact provides the possibility of transference of meaning on the basis of similarity and association, i.e. metaphor . Metonymy reflects the actually existing relations between two objects and is thus based on their contiguity.
Let us now proceed with a detailed analysis of the ontology, structure and function of these stylistic devices. In this article we would like to analyze some metaphors and metonymies which are given in the novel «A Farewell to Arms» by Ernest Hemingway. As we know Ernest Hemingway, as a master of words, used many expressive means and stylistic devices in his novel. He wrote his works in such way because of expressiveness and impressiveness of novels. Below there are the stylistic devices from his famous work.
1. In the bed of the river, there were pebbles and boulders, dry and write in the sun, and the water was clear and swiftly moving and blue in the channels.
In this sentence ‘the bed of the river’ is a metaphor. Because the word ‘a bed’ is a piece of furniture and Hemingway used this word for river, meaning ‘the bottom of river’.
«The vineyards were thin and bare- branched too and all the country wet and brown and dead with the autumn».
In this sentence there are two metaphors «bare — branched» and «dead». The writer wrote about vineyards «bare — branched» as he wanted to write «vineyards were without leaves». The second metaphor is «dead». The writer used this word for ‘country’, but this word is in inanimate, because of it I find the word dead metaphorical personification.
At the foot of the bed was my flat trunk, and my winter boots, the leather shiny with oil, were on the trunk.
In this sentence the word «foot» is metaphor. This word is the part of body of animate objects. Here it is used for ‘bed’. That’s why it is personification.
It took the enamel off your teeth and left it on the roof of your mouth.
In this sentence the word «roof» is used for mouth, but its dictionary meaning is «the higher part house». The writer found the likeness between the higher part of the mouth and the higher part of the house.
«The saint hung down on the outside of my uniform and I undid the throat of my tunic, unbuttoned the shirt and dropped him under the shirt».
The meaning of the «throat» is «the front part of the neck». By the combination «the throat of the tunic» we can understand «the collar of the tunic». That’s why it becomes a metaphor.
«We were in the foot-hills on the near side of the river and as the road mounted there were the high mountains off to the north with snow still on the tops.
In this sentence the word «foot» is used for «hill». The meaning of this word is «part forming the lover and of the leg», contextual meaning is «lower part of the hill».
Beyond the mule train the road was empty and we climber through the hills and then went over the shoulder of a long hill into the river-valley».
This sentence also has such kind of metaphor but here instead of «foot» used «shoulder». The meaning of this word is «that part of body of a human being or animal where an arm foreleg is joined to the trunk, or where the wing of a bird going its neck», contextual meaning is «the higher part of hills but not the top». The writer found likeness between these two meanings.
«When you come back bring a photograph?»
«Bring good opera disks»
«Don’t bring Caruso. He bellows».
We know that «Caruso» is the name of a person, proper noun. It is a direct meaning. But in contextual meaning it lost its value as a proper noun it became common noun. By context we can understand that the meaning is about opera disks sung by the singer Caruso. The author’s used name used for his work. The whole used for the part.
1. «I had gone to no such place but to the smoke of café’s and nights».
In this sentence metonymy is «smoke of cafes and nights». «Smoke is used for «cafes», but we know that «café’s can’t make smoke, it is done instead of part. That’s why it is metonymy.
2. «The batteryin the next garden woke me the morning and I saw the sun coming through the window and got out of bed».
The word «battery» is used instead of the sounds of bangs which were made by battery guns». The second metonymy in the sentence is «the sun» used instead of the part.
To conclude we can say that metaphors and metanomies give colour to the written text, make the language natural so that reader will enjoy and fully feel the languge.
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