Periodization of the history of Uzbekistan
Эшов Б., Жураев А. Т. Periodization of the history of Uzbekistan // Молодой ученый. 2014. №2. С. 661-664.
Central Asia being an inseparable part of the world civilization, is one of the ancient cultural heart of mankind. In the consequence of the researches held for long years in the different provinces of the region the common, similar cultural relics have been found and studied. For example, the historical-cultural, socio-economical, and political processes happened in the territory of Central Asia in the ancient times were close to each other, despite the various migration processes, common cultural and ethnic roots united the ancient tribes and nations lived in this area. Therefore, the history of the nations of Central Asia has been dependent on each other since the ancient times. That is the reason why we use the terms “history of Central Asia” and “history of Uzbekistan” side by side when we speak about the ancient times.
It is known, not only the history of Uzbekistan, but also the history of total mankind is long and complicated, and very rich in various historical-cultural events.
In the last years many discoveries about archeology, anthropology, ethnography and numismatics have been done in the territory of Central Asia and important information have been gathered to describe our history fairly. These information and materials enable to fully imagine about the economical, cultural and socio-political processes in the ancient steps of the region’s history, they are linked with many historical-cultural processes such as the most ancient economy and labour tools, the appearance of modern people, passing to the industrial form of the economy, the use of metal in industry, exchanging and trade, foundation of the first cities and states. It is very important to pay attention to these processes in periodization (dividing into periods) of history.
Arguments are continueing among the scientists on the problem of periodization of the history of Central Asia, especially, the history of Uzbekistan according to the demands of the time. The problems of periodization have not found their solution yet although the scientists such as A. Askarov, E. Rtveladze, A. Sagdullaev paid attention to the historical-cultural processes in periodization of the history of Central Asia from the ancient times up to now, civilization approach to the problem, methodological basis of periodization. Depending on the researches of the scientists carried out in the last years, in this article we found it necessary to mention briefly about the problems of periodization of the history of Uzbekistan. Because, first of all, dividing the history chronologically into periods, considering the peculiarities of each period, it is desired to prepare the lectures and divide the lesson hours according to the subject. Though it looks so simple, this aspect also demands correct periodization of history which is a complicated question. The importance of the problem is to educate the youth in history on the basis of scientifically based periodization.
The arguments about the periodization of the history of Uzbekistan, in general of Central Asia, the socio-economical processes happened in the region in the ancient times and the system in the ancient society began in the year of 20–30 s. In 1926 V. V. Bartold announced his assumptions about socio-economical system in the ancient Khorezm . In 1929 V. Lenin’s article named “About the state” was published, he (Man of genius) wrote in this article: “In all the countries, the development of all the human society for thousand years shows us the general law — correctness and consistency of this development. First the classless society — first patriarchal, primitive society appeared, in this society there were no aristocrats. Then slavery society came into existence. The present civilized European countries have passed this step. That is, two thousand years ago the slavery system was in power in these regions. The most of the nations in the rest part of the w orld also have passed such system.”
According to today’s all researches, these ideas are based on the five stage scheme of social-economical systems (primitive, slavery, feudal, capitalistic, communistic) exchange, it was not considered that the formation of those social and economical structures is long term, too complicated process and chronologically it happens differently in various nations. Unfortunately, the ideological pressure of that time made all the specialists research on the basis of the fake scheme above. Particularly, in 1933 V. V. Struve proved that the class society and statehood in the ancient Schumer and Egypt were dependent on the irrigational peasantry, and mentioned about the existence of slavery states in Central Asia too .
Although the scholars such as S. P. Tolstov, N. M. Nikolskiy, I. M. Lure, A. I Tumenov, M. E. Masson gave their opinions about this question in those years, the theories about the existence of slavery system in Central Asia were published in the popular science and special literary works . In 1948 А. N. Bernshtam  and S. P. Tolstov  suggested the idea calling the first states in the history of Central Asia antique or antique slavery states. But, the theory of “slavery society” and “slavery states” of Central Asia was not scientifically proved, and it was completely based on the assumptions. Therefore, the scholars such as I. I. Umnyakov, N. A. Kislyakov, V. A. Shishkin, A. M. Belinitskiy voiced their disapprovals. Despite this, the five stage socio-economical formation remained in the fundamental editions such as “History of Uzbekistan SSR”, “History of Turkmenistan SSR”, “History of Kirgizstan SSR” published in the time of Soviet Union.
As we mentioned above, in the time of independence, thanks to the researches done for creating our true history the five stage formation periodization based on the Soviet ideology was entirely refused. In periodization of the ancient history the ideas paying attention to the social and economical factors of historical-cultural development appeared. Particularly, according to A. Sagdullaev, the most ancient time of the history of Central Asia includes several hundred thousand years. Because of the unevenness of the historical and cultural development in the territories of Europe and Asia, especially, unsuitableness of the changes in the material culture in different times, the historical dates and periodization belong to some regions differ each other .
On periodization of the history of Uzbekistan A. Asqarov’s researches in the latest years are worthy of attention. According to the scholar, the history of Uzbekistan is a part of the world history. It is impossible to study the historical processes happened in this land separately from the world history. Бу заминда юз берган тарихий жараёнларни жаҳон тарихидан ажратиб ўрганиш мумкин эмас. The connection between them is the result of the laws of the society’s development. Every nation living in any region of the Earth, must go through all the steps of the development in a certain level. But, the development of the society was not the same everywhere. Uneven development of the society was more dependent on the natural-geographical and ecological opportunities of the region in the ancient times. In the assumption of total social and economical changes happening in the life of the society, the developing level of the history of Central Asia and the situation demanded by this region’s history, the history of Central Asia, especially, of Uzbekistan can be divided into periods . On the basis of comparative analysis and the objective factors of the historical processes, the researcher divides the history of Uzbekistan from the most ancient times up to now into seven large chronological periods . But, scholar’s this periodization demands to become a little compact.
In some teaching manuals like “History of Uzbekistan” edited in the late years great attention is being paid to the questions of periodization of the history. Particularly, in the manual by Q. Usmonov, M. Sodiqov and N. Oblomurodov edited in 2002 mentioned about it . The authors divided “the rich, unique history of Uzbek people” into five large periods. But their this periodization was not socio-economically based, the basic factors of the periodization were not depicted by comparative analysis.
In the manual “History of Motherland” by R. Shamsutdinov and Sh. Karimov edited in the Latin alphabet they tried to follow the principles of methodology based on the new civilization approaches, and it was recommended to divide the history of Motherland into six large periods . Unfortunately, these authors also didn’t reveal the social and economical relationships, natural-geographical and ecological situations and the basic factors of periodization that main attention should be paid to in dividing the history of Uzbekistan into periods, they only mentioned A. Asqarov’s certain opinions about it.
In general, in the textbooks and manuals “History of Uzbekistan” published in the time of independence the questions of periodization almost were not depicted or main attention was paid to certain times (periods) of history. For example, E. V. Rtveladze in his researches in the last years paid attention to periodization of the history of Uzbek statehood. The scholar divided the Uzbek statehood and its development chronologically into six periods on the basis of civilization approach, he indicated the upper point of this period as the second half of II thousands BC, and the lower point as the first half of the III century AD .
Of course, a small article is not enough for the questions of periodization of the history of Uzbekistan. In spite of this, on the basis of the comparative analysis of researches done before us and studying the existed literatures, it is recommended to divide the history of Uzbekistan into periods as followings:
1. The most ancient time of the history of Uzbekistan. This period can be divided into the following groups: a) the period of primitive group in Central Asia — According to the material cultural development, this period chronologically includes 1 million 40 thousand years ago, that is the first and middle paleolith. b) the period of tribal society, the formation of the tribal society from the late paleolith and their development in Mesolithic, Neolithic, Eneolithic periods. This period is described by the appearance and development of social administration.
2. The period of passing to the first statehood and development of statehood. From the point of view of social-economical and cultural development this period is divided into the following steps: а) the appearance of the first urban culture and passing to the statehood (the first half of III — II thousands BC), b) the appearance of the first states and developing steps of regional-administrative governance (the second half of II thousands BC — antique time). This period is described by social division of labor in the result of the rapidly use of bronze and iron in the fields of economy, the progress of industrial forces, the appearance of political unions, and the appearance of Ancient Baqtriya and Khorezm, the development of Central Asian people under poly-ethnic states such as Ahamoniys, Alexander the Great, Salavkiys and the progress of international and mutual cultural and economical relationships.
3. The Middle Ages of the history of Uzbekistan. This period is divided into the following steps: а) First Middle Ages; b) developed Middle Ages; c) Late Middle Ages. Chronologically this period includes from V century to XVIII century — the middle of XIX century. In the first step of the Middle Ages landowning relationships changed and different forms of ownership (private property, public property, vag’nze) appeared, ethno-cultural processes speeded up and local government became the base of the state system. In the second step the tradition of centralized statehood increased and the religion of Islam widely spread in Central Asia, science and culture highly developed and the renaissance began in this field, ethnic formation of the nations ended, different forms of landowning and ownership existed. In the third step (from ХVII century) struggles for government increased and the territories of Central Asia were divided into khanates.
4. The period of Colonialism of Tsarism and the reign of Soviet Union in Uzbekistan. This period chronologically includes the middle of ХIХcentury to1991 and it is divided into the steps of Colonialism and Soviet Union time. In the first step due to the invading of Tsarism Central Asia turned into the raw base of Russia and the Russian capitals rapidly came into these regions, local industry and crafts were damaged, attention was not paid to national-cultural values, in the result national freedom actions increased and the ideas of national education were widely spread under the leadership of Jaded representatives. In the second step, first of all armed and ideological struggles for independence increased, but they were mercilessly broken out and the development of the society was surrendered to communistic ideology, state monopoly took advantage in ownership, “the peoples who decide their own destiny” and the soviet republics practically were surrendered to the benefits of “the centre”.
5. The independence of Uzbekistan and the years of national independence. This period is the time Uzbekistan gained and strengthened its independence, 1991–2000s are the passing period. In the passing period the firm foundation of the independence was built, on the basis of “Uzbek model” went towards social and economical progress, Uzbekistan was admitted by the world community, the ideology of national independence came into the life of the society. Since 2000 many reforms have been carried out about building economically and culturally highly developed legal democratic state. These reforms first of all, are directed to provide the advantage of public benefits, social politics, to develop small and private business, and also provide the mutual beneficial relationships with foreign countries in different fields.
In conclusion it should be mentioned that this periodization being suggested by the author doesn’t put an end to this theme. It is natural that the questions of periodization which are intense in teaching history will cause serious arguments. But, working out an exact conception and introduce it to teaching process is the demand of the time.
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