Classroom assessment, then, is no mere technical device. Teachers assess by making marks on the page or by using words. Behind whatever form they use are not just objective or quasi-objective norms and standards but also assumptions about children’s development, learning and motivation, and values relating to matters such as self-esteem and the relative importance of ability and effort. Alexander, 2001
Assessment is a term that covers any activity in which evidence of learning is collected in a planned and systematic way, and is used to make a judgment about learning.
A distinction between formative and summative (summing-up) purposes has been familiar since the 1960s although the meaning of these two terms has not been well understood. A more transparent distinction, meaning roughly the same thing, is between assessment of learning, for grading and reporting, and assessment for learning, where the explicit purpose is to use assessment as part of teaching to promote pupils’ learning.
If the purpose is to help in decisions about how to advance learning and the judgment is about the next steps in learning and how to take them, then the assessment is formative in function, sometimes referred to as Assessment for Learning (AfL). AfL came to prominence, as a concept, after the publication in 1999 of a pamphlet with this title by the Assessment Reform Group, a small group of UK academics who have worked, since 1989, to bring evidence from research to the attention of teachers and policymakers.
If the purpose of assessment is to summarize the learning that has taken place in order to grade, certificate or record progress, then the assessment is summative in function, sometimes referred to as assessment of learning. When summative assessment is used for making decisions that affect the status or future of students, teacher or school (that is, ‘high stakes’), the demand for reliability of measure often means the tests are used in order closely to control the nature of the information and conditions in which it is collected.
What is the purpose of assessment?
The most commonly held views of the purposes of assessment are that every teacher must know how to What does formative assessment look like, and when should I use it? What kind of planning does it require, and what kinds of data does it generate? How will formative assessment improve my teaching and help to students succeed in a standards-based environment? How does it relate to application of multiple intelligences theory, to differentiated instruction, and to everything else already doing in the classroom? In this volume, the teacher should gather what you really need to know in order to make formative assessment a seamless part of your everyday practice. Emphasizing formative assessment application in secondary schools but applicable to teachers of all grade levels and all subject areas, it provides:
- Straightforward answers to teachers most frequently asked questions
- Dozens of strategies for measuring student understanding and diagnosing learning needs before, during, and after instruction:
- Illustrations of formative assessment across the content areas, from math to language arts to science to social studies to health and physical education
-Guidance on making data-informed instructional adjustments
-Sample templates for organizing assessment data to track both whole-class and individual progress toward identified goals
- Case studies to illustrate effective and ineffective formative assessment and deepen your understanding If you are looking to take formative assessment from theory to practice and from practice to genuine learning improvement this is the place to begin. Contents:
Fundamentals of formative assessment –
Questions and answers about formative assessment –
Formative assessment prior to instruction –
Formative assessment during instruction –
Formative assessment after instruction –
Improving teaching and learning through formative assessment –
Balancing assessment practices –
Glossary of assessment terms –
Lexicon of formative assessment strategies -
What a Student Knows?
Knowledge must be expressed to be assessed. Assessing what a student knows is not as simple as it might sound. Students must express what they know for the teacher to effectively evaluate it. Whether verbally, through writing or by some other tangible expression, the student must demonstrate to the teacher that he knows the material. Using varied assessment methods to reach all types of learners is most effective.
How a Student Learns?
Not all students learn the same way. In order to devise lessons that result in student learning, the teacher must also consider how students learn. Different types of learners require different types of lessons. For example, a student who learns best visually will learn better from visual stimuli like photos or demonstrations where a tactile learner needs to move around or learn by doing. Once the teacher and student have assessed how the student best acquires knowledge, they can work to structure his working environment accordingly.
How a Student Compares?
Standardized tests compare student achievement scores. One of the key functions of standardized testing is to compare students to each other across age and grade levels. Improvement shows learning.Learning is generally assessed in increments over time to evaluate the efficacy of the teaching methods used. Pre- and post-project assessments determine how much knowledge the student possessed going into the learning experience and how much was actually gained by the experience. It is important to remember that a student may fail to achieve a set standard but can still make great strides that demonstrate learning. Goals. Set realistic learning goals.Assessing what a student knows and how he learned it provides valuable information to both teacher and student in setting achievement goals. Setting realistic and individualized academic goals is the upshot of assessment. While comparison to peers helps establish appropriate grade level and academic placement, it is assessment of a student's improvement that demonstrates his learning capacity. Carefully designed assessments play a vital role in determining future strategies in both teaching and learning. Assessment and Testing. Students are expected to take notes during class with homework being assigned at the end of each lesson. Students must complete all assignments on time and we monitor all coursework carefully to ensure that students meet their deadlines. Our ongoing assessment combines weekly tests in each subject and formal mock examination once a month. Experience demonstrates that regular testing is vital for improving examination technique.
Assessment and Evaluation of student teaching
Assessment of student teaching in the Education involves self-assessment by the student teacher and external assessment by the cooperating teacher and university supervisor: Opportunities for student teachers to examine and direct their professional development through reflective conferencing with their cooperating teachers.
Formative assessments and summative evaluations aligned with the Standards of Effective Practice, conducted by both the cooperating teacher.
Development of professional teaching portfolios by student teachers as a form of self-assessment to the Standards of Effective Practice for Teachers and to encourage lifelong learning and continuing professional development.
Student teacher reflection. Cooperating teachers are in the unique position model and encourage reflective teaching practice. Regular opportunities for pre- and post- conferencing should be planned to engage and assist student teachers in reflect on their teaching performance: on a regular basis, share your own assumptions, intentions and reactions as a teacher.
Build trust by listening carefully, remaining non-judgmental, and maintaining a supportive position.
Help the student teacher examine metaphors and analogies used in thinking and talking about teaching and learning.
Formulate questions that help the student teacher clarify or probe the issues or probe the issues or problems that she/he may experience.
Assist the student teacher in using a portfolio as a springboard for reflection and the development of personal and professional goals.
Encourage the student teacher to record teaching experiences, including insights, affirmations, issues, problems, etc.
Encourage the student teacher to do a simple action research project and examine the results. Formative assessment. The cooperating teacher observes the student teacher on a regular basis and provides feedback on the teaching performance. Throughout student teaching experience, the cooperating teacher assists the student teacher in reflecting on teaching performance and developing goals and strategies for improving practice.
Formative assessment is used to compliment the process of reflective conferencing, and to assist cooperating teachers, and student teachers in specifying areas of teaching strengths and those of needed development.
Final evaluations. Cooperating teachers typically submit a final evaluation in form of recommendations submitted directly to the individual student to use for his/her job application process.
Portfolio development. The development of a professional teaching portfolio is a process by which a student teacher may begin to identify and articulate his/her professional development in terms the Standards of Effective Practice for teachers.
All program areas in the development require the development of teaching portfolios. Throughout the student teaching experience, cooperating teachers to collect teachers for encouraging student teachers to collect and compile the finest examples to create an electronic portfolio.
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