In this article we will talk about the cognitive activities of students with defects in intelligence. As a result of cognitive activity, a person acquires visions of the surrounding world. It is planned to go further through the methods of correcting the cognitive activity of students.
Keywords: cognitive activity, intellect, memory, thinking, imagination, intuition, perception, mental retardation, training.
В данной статье речь пойдет о познавательной деятельности учащихся с нарушениями интеллекта. В результате познавательной деятельности человек приобретает представления об окружающем мире. Предусматривается дальнейшее развитие познавательной деятельности учащихся коррекционно-развивающими методами.
Ключевые слова: познавательная деятельность, интеллект, память, мышление, воображение, интуиция, восприятие, умственная отсталость, воспитание.
Human cognitive activity is the leading type of activity for understanding the environment. Dear President Sh. Mirziyoyev said: «The greatest wealth is intelligence, knowledge, the greatest heritage is a good upbringing, the greatest poverty is ignorance». Today, special attention is paid to educating the younger generation as a full-fledged adult. For centuries, the upbringing of the younger generation has been studied by a number of scholars of its development. Oriental thinkers Abu Ali ibn Sina, Abu Nasr al-Farabi, and al-Beruni also wrote that children with developmental disabilities had valuable insights into their cognitive activities. Ibn Sina was the first to suggest that mental functions depend on the activity of certain centers in the brain. According to Farobi's theory of cognition, the brain controls a person's cognition and mental abilities, and the heart is the center that supplies all the organs with blood necessary for life. Indeed, a person's cognitive activity helps him to know and comprehend the world around him.
The development of mental activity is directly related to cognitive processes. Human cognitive activity should include thinking, imagination, attention, memory, intuition, and other processes. Foreign and domestic scientists have done a lot of work with the psychology of children with developmental disabilities. Among them are L. S. Vigotskiy, N. A. Dobrolyubov, G. I. Rossolimo, T. A. Vlasova, S. Y. Rubinshteyin, S. Y. With Pevzner and exact memory features, G. Y. Tiroshin, L. V. Zankov, B. I. Pinskiy, G. M. Dulnev, S.Kim, S.Sh.Aitmetova, D. A. Gordeienko, A.Sagatov, V. S. Rakhmanova, R.Shomakhmudova, G. A. Sadikova, P. M. Pulatova, on the issues of education of children with intellectual disabilities in Uzbekistan Sosedova, under the guidance of Professor M. P. Muminova M. P. Khamidova, Sh.M.Amirsaidova, D. A. Nurkeldiyeva, N. S. Musayeva conducted their research.
Mentally retarded children understand the essence of things through events. In this way, their thinking activities are corrected. It is impossible to achieve the goal with any show. Perhaps it is possible to expect that the demonstration will be demonstrated together with oral explanations. Only then will the speech and thinking of mentally retarded children develop together, and it should be borne in mind that mentally retarded children are not active in the process of secondary school education, and their independent work is limited. These traits in mentally retarded children cannot reach their normal peers even at the end of auxiliary school education. Therefore, in all classes of the auxiliary school, teachers need to address these shortcomings. Knowledge begins with perception. Perception is the reflection in our minds of certain qualities of the surrounding reality, things and events that affect our sensory organs. At the same time, every organ, every analyzer, as I. P. Pavlov points out, perceives some qualities of things: we see, hear, smell cold, warm, salty, white, black, bitter, sweet, etc. Taste — taste, skin — muscle — movement and activity through the activity of organic sensory organs. The fact that cognitive activity in students with intellectual disabilities lags behind their normally developing peers is, of course, a permanent impairment of cognitive activity as a result of organic brain injury. These disorders require early diagnosis of the younger generation and the implementation of the necessary medical pedagogical-psychological approach.
We know that the cognitive processes of mentally retarded students are permanently impaired, which in turn affects their memory, perception, imagination, thinking, and attention processes. The study of the laws of human memory is one of the main tasks of special psychology. We know that memory is the ability to remember the events of the world around us for a long time, to remember and forget them when needed. Among students with disabilities, the memory of children with intellectual disabilities is characterized by slow development. This can be seen during the training sessions with them. It is advisable to use more visual aids in the lessons with them. The use of visual aids and objects, which are the golden rule of didactics, is one of the important factors in making the lesson more understandable and memorable. Subjects taught to mentally retarded students can be absorbed to a certain extent through repetition. In students with special educational needs, correctional work is carried out by developing cognitive activities through various methods. Analyzing the thinking of mentally retarded children, it should be noted that this process is stereotyped, difficult to move and not fully flexible at all. Therefore, the application of existing knowledge and skills in new situations creates difficulties in mentally retarded children and leads to the task being performed incorrectly. Studies show that the memory of mentally retarded children develops slightly at the age of eleven and twelve. At the age of thirteen and fourteen, mentally retarded children are able to use logical concepts independently, while at the age of fifteen, the ability of mentally retarded children to remember material is closer to that of healthy children. This means that if the work with mentally retarded children is done correctly and clearly in a timely manner, it will help their development. The main goal of the defectologist is to organize correctional work, taking into account the individual characteristics of mentally retarded children. The memory of mentally retarded children also develops, only the peculiarities of mentally retarded children should be taken into account. Properly selected methodologies with students with intellectual disabilities will help students correctly diagnose and develop cognitive activity. The method of “memorizing 10 words” to test the memory of mentally retarded children, “L. V. Zankov ”method,“ Determining the sequence of events ”methods are recommended. In order to study the thinking of mentally retarded students and make a correct diagnosis, it is possible to recommend the method of «Cross-sections», the method of «Fourth plus», «Classifications» and «Identification of missing parts».
« Put it in place» methodology
Objective: To develop cognitive activities in students with intellectual disabilities. Transfer technique: In this case, three types of generalizing pictures or objects (animals, vegetables, fruits, vehicles) are placed on the table in order. On the next table will be placed pictures on these topics. Students are required to take their chosen pictures and place them in the designated place. For example, if a student chooses a picture or object of an apple, he or she is required to place it in a special place set aside for fruit. In order to further complicate the methodology, it can be done in other subject areas.
This, in the correctional development of cognitive activity in students with intellectual disabilities, the correct choice of methods that develop each cognitive activity is required. This means that in order to effectively organize the educational process in educational institutions, taking into account the capabilities of each mentally retarded child and creating a moderately friendly environment in which students share their spiritual world, any shortcomings in mentally retarded children “Rather than“ Opportunity”. Because any mentally retarded child is not an underdeveloped child, but a child with a specific development. Therefore, mentally retarded children have a well-developed mental process, which is a problem in reflecting their normal state of communication with the external environment. a number of mental processes are disrupted, such as not. This can lead to learning problems for mentally retarded children. With children with special educational needs, the goal can be achieved as a result of organizing lessons using more visual aids.
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