This scientific article describes the preventive work carried out for children with intellectual disabilities to lead a healthy lifestyle, the results that can be achieved in the educational process, and practical recommendations for educators.
Keywords: mentally retarded, student, educator, parent, practical process, rehabilitation.
Since the independence of our country, our society has once again focused on young people who are the builders of our future. Positive changes, especially in the field of youth health, can be felt at every step. No matter what type of institution the public education system is in today, it is staffed by doctors and qualified nurses. Efforts are being made to protect the health of students with intellectual disabilities, to provide them with qualified medical care, to improve their health, and to prevent various diseases. Today, the formation of a healthy lifestyle is as important as in the past, and this problem has been studied as a social problem in the past. In this regard, a number of our pedagogical scientists have conducted research and made recommendations.
Factors that negatively affect the formation of a healthy lifestyle in mentally retarded students are harmful habits and ways to overcome them pedagogical scientists M.Abdulaziz, M.Akhmedov, M.Akhmatov, M.Ikromova, O.Najmiddinov, It is studied in the works of I.Nasritdinov, H.Rakhmatov, T.Uzakov and others. Physiologist B.Chumakov developed recommendations for students on sports, proper nutrition, adherence to the schedule, avoidance of harmful effects and proper rest. The solution of environmental problems is important for the formation of a healthy lifestyle. In this regard, I.Alibekov, P.Baratov, E.Turdikulov, Sh. Kurbanov, A.Ikramov, B.Kholliyev, A.Tukhtaev, Yu. The research of Shodimetov et al.
Most of the day (70 %) is spent by students in educational institutions. The amount of time a child spends in an educational institution depends on the growth and development of the child. Today, the effectiveness of teaching is achieved by increasing the mental activity of students. In many educational institutions, especially schools for children with intellectual disabilities, there is a constant decrease in psycho-emotional attention, decreased sleep, prolonged sitting, movement and time in the fresh air. The influence of negative factors on the learning process leads to the deterioration of the adaptive reserves of the nervous, immune and other systems of the growing organism, functional changes and the formation of chronic foci.
The negative impact of learning factors on children's health requires improved medical care for students. In auxiliary schools, children spend 4 to 6 hours 5–6 days a week. Organizing children as a team and their long stay in the educational institution allows them to effectively implement targeted preventive and health programs throughout the school year. The purpose of an in-depth medical examination of children is to identify the first complications of their health problems.
In order to conduct medical examinations and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities, it is necessary to work in constant cooperation with the medical staff of the educational institution, teachers and parents.
Educators are encouraged to organize health activities among students and parents to monitor the correct organization of student agendas.
One of the most common defects in the musculoskeletal system of students in educational institutions is deformity of the foot.
Among children and adolescents, flat feet are the most common, while flat feet and other types of flat feet are less common. The main reason for the development of flat feet is the gap between the muscles and the connecting apparatus.
In a traditionally formed educational process, students spend most of their time sitting. Therefore, educators need to monitor the sitting position of students during the lesson, spend minutes of physical education in the classroom, organize a sequence of actions that have a positive effect, include in the physical education exercises exercises aimed at maintaining posture. Doing the exercises with music will have a more positive effect. From the first day of school, it is important to pay attention to the formation of proper sitting in first-graders. Educators need to teach children simple ways to control their sitting at school and at home. Educators need to be patient with their children. The bending position required for writing reduces the weight on the back muscles, the heart rate increases, and the amplitude of respiratory movements decreases. In this case, to maintain balance, students lean on the table with their chests, which further complicates the work of internal organs. That is why the supervision of primary school teachers is so important for the health of children. Spending physical education minutes in the classroom is an effective way to maintain students' ability to work.
Russian scientist Kuindji.N.N emphasizes the need to spend minutes of physical education in the classroom, as it allows students to relax the central nervous system and static tense skeletal muscles due to prolonged sitting at the desk. Minutes of physical activity should include exercises designed to improve blood circulation to different groups of muscles and the brain in order for it to have a universal prophylactic effect.
The school needs to create conditions to meet the biological needs of students for action. This requirement can satisfy children and adolescents with more than 2 hours of daily physical activity. This amount of physical activity is associated with morning gymnastics, moving games during breaks, extended schedule sports hours, physical education classes and school competitions, health days and outdoor games, physical education, which each student must perform every day. independent training and training in sports sections.
The health of our young people today is far from ideal. In children, diseases of the digestive and hematopoietic organs, neurological diseases, and infectious skin diseases play a leading role. That is why one of the most important pedagogical problems today is to ensure that the educational system is based on the physiological characteristics of the body of young people, in full compliance with the rules of hygiene. Educators should know the laws of growth and development of young people, the ability of students to perform mental and physical work according to their age, to conduct educational work in educational institutions in accordance with the rules of medical and hygienic should burn.
In order to protect the health of children, to form a healthy lifestyle and, as a result, to create a healthy generation, it is necessary to provide students with medical and hygienic knowledge..
In summary, we highlight the following key factors in the prevention of disease in students in educational institutions and the formation of a healthy lifestyle:
– conduct in-depth medical examinations and rehabilitation activities for students, taking into account environmental and climatic conditions;
– Organizational and consistent implementation of disease prevention and rehabilitation measures;
– referral of students in need of rehabilitation to health facilities;
– Ensuring adequate medical and hygienic knowledge of teachers and educators in the formation of a healthy lifestyle in students;
– Collaborate with health professionals and parents in the implementation of the rehabilitation program;
– Supervise the organization of the student agenda by parents and educators.
In short, physical education and sports play an important role in the full development of the younger generation, the heirs of our great future. School educators need to teach students that an unhealthy lifestyle can lead to illness and suffering, and that a healthy lifestyle can lead to health and a happier life.
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