This article analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of the use of modern innovative and advanced foreign experience in mathematics lessons of primary school students. In order to increase the effectiveness of the use of pedagogical technologies in the education system.
Keywords: inclusive education, mentally retarded children, mathematics, technology.
The need for an initial mathematical individual and differential approach to children depends on their psychophysical development in the formation of concepts, against the background of organic or functional pathology, in which the disorders appear in different forms. As a rule, they are accompanied by disorders of the central nervous system, high nervous activity, and manifest themselves in a variety of cognitive problems — permanent or temporary, with varying degrees of severity. For intellectually retarded students, the study of mathematical material poses great difficulties, the reasons for which are primarily explained by the peculiarities of the development of the cognitive and emotional-volitional spheres of mentally retarded school students. According to research conducted by experts in the field of characteristics of mentally retarded children, you should pay attention to the following characteristics that are characteristic of them:
– with the underdevelopment of all neuropsychic functions, mainly the permanent dysfunction of abstract forms of thinking;
– combination of intellectual disability with arbitrary forms and imbalances of speech, perception, memory, attention and behavior;
– The slow pace of thinking and the inactivity of mental processes determine the inability to adapt the learned method of action in the learning process to new conditions;
– Lack of development of thinking affects all mental processes: cognition, memory, attention.
First of all, all the functions of distraction and generalization suffer, the components of mental activity associated with the analytical-synthetic activity of the brain are disrupted. In the emotional-volitional sphere, this is manifested in the lack of development of complex emotions and arbitrary forms of behavior. Although the teaching of mathematics is practical and interrelated with labor education, painting, science, geography, history, and physical education, students with intellectual disabilities must master the existing set of theoretical concepts.
First of all, master the concept of number, if the student has a level of development of mental operations (analysis, synthesis, abstraction, generalization, comparison, classification). The specificity of mental activity, the shortcomings of genetically later verbal-logical forms of thinking, inevitably lead to difficulties in the process of imagining abstract mathematical concepts and forms in mentally retarded students. At the same time, scientists have proven that mathematics as a subject includes the necessary conditions for the development of cognitive abilities, the correction of the intellect and personality of mentally retarded students. The most important aspect of correcting thinking in mentally retarded students is to improve not only inductive but also deductive reasoning, i.e., identifying the causes of the occurrence of the same events.
Experimental investigation, observation, and step-by-step generalization of individual cases will be understandable for students with intellectual disabilities. This method of teaching allows you to connect the teaching of mathematics with life and new knowledge with previously acquired knowledge, and provides both the conditions for their conscious acquisition and the optimal option of social adaptation of school students. A distinctive feature of teaching children in inclusive education is that a student with intellectual disabilities is in a normally developing environment. Accordingly, the teacher has two tasks: to deliver the lesson material to the normal developing students and to the student with disabilities according to his / her personalized program. Given the shortcomings in the development of students, their emotional and volitional state, first of all, it is necessary to develop children's performance, reproductive activity.
Foreign scientists (M. N. Perova, L. B. Baryaeva, V. V. Ekk) noted that mathematics as a subject includes the necessary conditions for the development of cognitive abilities, the correction of the intellect and personality of mentally retarded students proved. The most important aspect of correcting thinking in mentally retarded students is to improve not only inductive but also deductive reasoning, i.e., using these generalizations to identify the causes of similar events to explain new events of the same order already known to them. Based on the general objectives of the specialized school, he formed the objectives of teaching arithmetic: general education, training, practice. He rightly advocated the use of visual aids in the teaching of arithmetic. Careful planning of work on this topic, the organization of practical work. In the works of M. N. Perova, L. B. Baryaeva, V. V. Ekk and others developed a methodology for teaching the solution of arithmetic problems, the role of preparatory exercises aimed at enriching the practical experience of students, comparison and relevance. assembly, didactic games, visualization, schematic drawings, content recording and various forms of problem solving, as well as thematic-practical exercises aimed at defining the content of tasks. V. V. Ekk described the propaedeutic period of teaching mathematics to children with intellectual disabilities. It is important to emphasize the commitment to strict adherence to the school schedule from the very first lessons of the school: the call should be a call to the students, a call to start work.
Depending on the rules adopted at the school, the teacher may wait for the children in the hallway in front of the classroom or allow them to enter the classroom immediately when the bell rings. In any case, she watches how each child finds their table, especially in the first days. The teacher draws the children's attention to which side of the table they should stand on. Children sit with the teacher's permission.
Handouts, which are usually small items stored in special boxes or bags, are placed on the tables by the teacher during the break before class. During the lesson, students should observe what is happening on the board and listen carefully to the teacher's explanations. Bright big toys, things that are familiar to them or, conversely, new, unusual things attract children's attention. Equipment for math lessons can be prepared by the teacher himself or by high school students in the school workshops. In order to gather the students' attention and keep it for a while, the teacher should create a play situation in the classroom, stage fairy tales known to the children in the classroom, and ensure that all students participate in the activities. need.
The main activity of students in the classroom is frontal work. It should be organized in such a way that the children repeat the teacher's actions and words on the basis of the show, which is accompanied by verbal instructions. Therefore, the teacher is very careful not only about the method of demonstration, but also about the explanations associated with it. Both conditions must be available to students. Sentences used by the teacher should not be complicated, it is better to use simple sentences. The teacher's instructions should indicate only one action. Repetition aloud together helps to quickly memorize speech twists, individual terms. First, the children say individual words or phrases with the teacher, and then individually. If one of the children is unable to cope with some of the actions, the teacher helps: he performs the actions with the child and immediately asks him to repeat these actions. The teacher should constantly monitor the physical condition of students to prevent fatigue. Changes in activity and physical activity ensure that children work sustainably. A mentally retarded first grader does not feel the need to review, study, and evaluate objects, their relative positions, or the quantitative relationships of object groups. Sometimes practical activities amaze children so much that they are so busy with the process that they do not pay attention to the results and do not connect them. Therefore, the teacher regularly informs students about the relative position of objects in space, in the plane, quantitative relationships (more-less, equal), names the events (what happened, will happen and etc.) and the results obtained are compared. This is done in all math classes.Before school students learn to answer the teacher’s questions, they have to fill the dictionary with these words, without which it is impossible to describe spatial, quantitative relationships and the results of actions. So first the teacher answers, and the children just repeat them.
- M. P. Khamidova “Special methods of teaching mathematics”;
- R.Ibrohimov. A set of math problems. T.1996.
- M. Jumayev Practicum on methods of teaching mathematics. T.2004
- Jumayev ME, Workshop on methods of teaching mathematics in primary school. — Tashkent. Teacher, 2004.