This article provides recommendations for the pedagogical and psychological preparation of children with special needs in preschool education for social education, social support and preparation for independent living.
Keywords: psychology, speech, cognition, play, visual activity, perceptual action, didactic toys, thinking.
The study of the human psyche is extremely complex. For diagnostic work, it is very important to study the psyche of children in order to complete the auxiliary schools, because in order to conduct effective education in the auxiliary schools, it is also necessary to have the necessary information. A thorough study of the human psyche requires a person to have all-round knowledge and skills, as well as knowledge and sufficient life experience. Based on the knowledge of the peculiarities of the psyche of mentally retarded children, the content of educational work with them is determined.
The negative impact on the overall mental development of a mentally retarded child is presented in a comprehensive, in-depth analysis in the J. I. SHif manual. It acknowledges that the difference between mentally retarded children and a normal child is evident in their active speech. Mentally retarded children rarely use adjectives, verbs, conjunctions in their speech. Preschoolers with mental retardation often use one-word sentences. The idea expressed in these “rumors” will not be separated. As S. N. Rozhdestvensky points out, «It is impossible to teach children to read and write correctly without distinguishing and distinguishing the sounds in a word». Without confidence in their own strength in mentally retarded children, auxiliary schools cannot achieve the goals they set for themselves.
It is well known that pre-school development is a continuation of early development. Despite some growth at 3 years of age, future development will be based on previously achieved levels. At the same time, this young man has his own characteristics, his own responsibilities. Most of them occur for the first time. A child developing at a pre-school age level undergoes significant changes in his or her overall mental development. His cognitive activity grows very rapidly — his mind develops, his thinking develops, his logical thinking develops. The development of cognitive abilities is facilitated by the restoration of spiritual memory, voluntary attention.
Speech plays an important role in a child's perception of the world around them and in the development of communication and various types of children's activities. According to the manuals of AV Zaporozhets, children in preschool education have the opportunity to perform actions on verbal instructions, to acquire knowledge on the basis of explanations, based only on clear visual representations.
New types of activities are emerging, in particular, while play is the first and main type of joint activity of preschool children, and visual activity is the child's first productive activity; signs of labor activity. There is a rapid development of the child's personality. Will development is determined. The child becomes a small member of human society by acquiring moral concepts and forms of behavior.
Cognitive activity increases in a normal preschool child. His interest in knowing the world around him increases. It is no coincidence that kindergarten children reach a certain age. The preschooler is now interested not only in the appearance and function of the surrounding objects, but also in the connections and relationships between objects and events, the causal connections that underlie them, human interactions, moral and social connections and laws.. For mentally retarded children, preschool is the beginning of the perceptual movement. As the child becomes more interested in objects and toys, he or she becomes more familiar with them and their relationships. In the fifth year of childhood, there is a sharp turn in the development of cognition of a mentally retarded child. Children can choose according to the pattern (color, shape, size). Some children also have developmental delays as a whole.
A psychologist who arranges work with children with mental disabilities should follow these guidelines:
– develop an individual work plan;
– to determine which mental process is slow, which process is active and dominant (with the help of a neurologist, psychoneurologist, neuropathologist and psychiatrist);
– comprehensive implementation of individual characteristics of the child;
– Regular monitoring and recording of the child's psychological state (stress, tension, depression, etc.);
– Gradual transition from movement games to mental games, as well as game-based diagnostics;
– Evaluate positive and negative changes about the child, using psychological methods to interpret their behavior;
– Shaping based on psychological changes and changes;
– Various training games, conversations and mornings that affect mental development
– and to influence the child's mental development through a strict plan of problem situations in the scene;
In addition to the perception of mentally retarded children, there are also significant differences in the development of children with normal intelligence. Children are able to choose according to a pattern based on visual comprehension, but are unable to make choices from a large number of characters, have difficulty impregnating nearby features, and are unable to take these features into account when interacting with didactic toys.
The ability to generalize on separate characters, to break a series of objects on a particular character, as well as to find the place of the object can not be achieved without special training. The formation of the whole image is far behind: in half of the children the image cannot be the basis of action and cannot be reconciled with the child in any way (neither in the form of object images, nor in the collection of cropped pictures); will be.
In mentally retarded children, visual movement is characterized by a developmental delay. By the end of the preschool period, all children are exposed to practical situations in which there is an action that is directly aimed at achieving a practical result, i.e., moving, applying, or altering an object. can not do. At the same time, normal-minded children perform these tasks at an early age. Mentally retarded children often do not realize that there is a problem, and when there is a general understanding, they do not associate the search for a solution with the need to use tools. Although they are surrounded by man-made objects as tools or weapons from childhood.
Mental and physical retardation is sometimes milder, mainly due to the immaturity of the emotional, willpower area. This is manifested in the inability to concentrate on the tasks. In other cases, the above-mentioned shortcomings are accompanied by a certain lag in the development of thinking. All of these features are often exacerbated by shortcomings in education. But despite all the differences, these children have common features, which are typical of children younger than themselves. Lagging behind in mental and physical development allows them to respond in a timely manner with the right pedagogical and psychological methods, and then make up for the shortcomings in their condition.
A special action plan will be developed for such children, with general reinforcing treatment, a relaxed regimen, and individual behavioral interventions in the learning process. The positive and strongest aspects of children's personalities: activity, well-developed speech, fine motor skills, fullness of intellectual abilities are used. The psychologist should be in close contact with the parents of the children.
Taking into account the characteristics of age, a psychologist, if he makes wise use of various tests and training sessions, will be able to overcome difficulties in a much shorter period of time.
In order for a psychologist to perform a complex task, such as correcting and compensating for defects in children's mental development, he or she must know such children to a certain extent. This psychological examination is a complex and comprehensive examination, in addition to the pedagogical-psychological study, but also a medical examination to determine how the child's mental development is progressing, the onset and nature of the disease, the degree of physical growth, health Information on the state of the brain, the characteristics of the nervous system, eyes, ears, the characteristics of the emotional-volitional sphere of the intellect, the nature of mental activity, including speech therapy.
When working with children with mental retardation or disabilities, the psychologist must first gain the child's confidence. We know that every child, the person they trust, shares their experiences directly.
- «Alohida yordamga muhtoj bolalarni tarbiyalashda oila va maktab hamkorligi» Ilmiy-metodik to'plam, T-2013
- «Praktikum po psixologii umstvenno otstalogo rebyonka». M., 1985.
- Abu Ali ibn Sino. Tib qonunlari. Uch jildlik, saylanma. Xalq merosi.1993.
- Burlachuk L. S. Psixodiagnostika: Uchebnik dlya vuzov. SPb.: Piter, 2001.