Currently, about 20 million people speak Russian outside of Russia; Russian is studied in more than 90 countries. In recent years, interest in the Russian language has begun to grow. Today the whole world is showing great interest in the changes that have taken place in the countries of the socialist community.
The role of the Russian language as an international language is also great for the exchange of scientific information. This is primarily due to the pace of development of science.
Life itself today puts forward tasks: to improve the study of foreign languages, in particular Russian as a foreign language, especially in the absence of a linguistic environment; to develop a scientific-methodological and psychological-pedagogical basis for the organization of the educational process [1, p. 3].
Teaching oral speech, which is the main form of communication, is one of the main practical goals of teaching the Russian language. It consists of two interrelated components: oral expression of one's thoughts and listening comprehension of someone else's speech in Russian. The purpose of the practical course of the Russian language is to teach students the ability to conduct oral dialogue and conversation on topics from the surrounding life and correctly express their thoughts in Russian using the studied lexical and grammatical material. The basic knowledge acquired at school, especially at the initial stage, will play an important role in the assimilation of the educational material. The most important task of intensive education in primary grades is the formation and development of children's interest in the Russian language. The methodology is based on the socio-communicative principle aimed at achieving conscious, meaningful assimilation by students of linguistic and speech material.
Attention to the communicative, functional and pragmatic aspects in learning and mastering a foreign language has increased interest in oral speech as a process associated with its generation and perception. In this process, the activity of not only the speaker, but also the listener is active. Oral speech, as active speech, can by its nature in certain situations merge with written speech. In these cases, the leading is the principle of «sense-speech» situations, as well as the correlation of the facts of the language system with the conditions of their functioning. Reinforcement of written language skills with written language skills is usually associated with reproductive forms of speech activity. In these cases, you can choose communication exercises, taking into account the age characteristics of primary school students.
Communication exercises are the most effective way of developing speech skills and abilities due to their following features: firstly, they are an indicator of spontaneous, fluency in speech, secondly, they have educational and cognitive value, and thirdly, in the process of forming communication skills and skills simultaneously practiced and spelling, and grammatical, and spelling skills. The value of using communication exercises in order to develop interest in mastering speech skills in a second language is that learning approaches life practice.
For example, you can use small-volume speech exercises such as:
Express agreement or disagreement «Ты читаешь книгу?» («Are you reading the book?»)
— Нет, я не читаю книгу (- No, I am not reading the book).
— Да, я читаю книгу (- Yes, I am reading the book).
Ты смотрела этот мультфильм? (Have you watched this cartoon?)
— Нет, я не смотрела этот мультфильм (- No, I have not watched this cartoon).
— Да, я смотрела этот мультфильм (- Yes, I have watched this cartoon).
Попросите у подруги карандаш (фломастер, линейку) Образец: — Дай мне, пожалуйста, карандаш.
– Ask your friend for a pencil (a felt pen, ruler). For example: — Give me a pencil, please.
It is necessary to highlight some of the methodological techniques used in work with primary school students. It is very important that children find themselves in a situation where they must speak only in Russian (however, you can check the understanding of the read text using their native language). Primary school students learn the material using sentence patterns, for example: The schoolboy answers. The schoolgirl answers. The schoolchildren answer.
Children learn the educational material by listening; therefore, in the process of teaching the Russian language, it is advisable to use such techniques as:
— choral reproduction for the teacher
— individual reproduction for the teacher
— choral singing, recitation.
These techniques are effective not only from a methodological point of view (children actively learn the pronunciation of individual words and the intonation of sentences), but also correspond to the age characteristics of children. In the learning process, such techniques as playing out dialogues, speech situations, talking from pictures, acting by order, and various games are widely used.
In conditions where there is practically no Russian environment, speech training is carried out mainly in the classroom. It is possible to achieve this goal, especially at the initial stage, if you organize interesting, non-traditional classes. Pupils of primary school age cannot consciously learn, and only the presentation of the program material in an entertaining form contributes to the intellectual development of students, education and development of speech. Taking into account age characteristics, it is necessary to alternate various techniques during classes, thereby activating the cognitive activity of children. Among the listed teaching methods, various games are very important, because at this age, play is of great importance in the life of children. It aids learning, facilitates the learning process, and is very important in terms of motivation. Games are used for various purposes in introducing and reinforcing vocabulary and syntactic patterns. An important role in the process of teaching the Russian language is played by visualization, which arouses children's attention, interest, and develops their curiosity. When teaching, you can use pictures, cards, objects, toys. In the lesson, children draw themselves in their notebooks. Such pictures help children to reproduce the text while assimilating the topic. For example, a dialogue between mom and daughter:
— Мама, я хочу есть (- Mom, I want to eat).
— Давай, дочка, накроем на стол. Ставь чашки, ложки, вилки (- Come on, daughter, let's set the table. Put on cups, spoons, forks).
— Поставила. А где конфеты? (- I have put. Where's the candy?)
— Конфеты, масло, сыр в холодильнике. Принеси их (- Sweets, butter and cheese are in the refrigerator. Bring them (during the dialogue, the student selects toy items of kitchen utensils or images with food and puts them on the table).
So, you can fix the topic “Dishes. Food».
The entire system of tasks, exercises, topics, types of work are subordinated to one goal — the fulfillment of the function of language as a means of communication. Already at the initial stage of training, the development of skills is envisaged: a) logically consistently combine 2–5 sentences into an elementary coherent speech based on the situation in the volume of the learned linguistic material, using linking words.
b) compose a short coherent text using the teacher's questions and relying on visual aids
c) conduct the dialogue correctly from the point of view of phonetic, lexical, grammatical, tonally, pronounce the lines of the dialogue, build a second line, reacting to a question or urge, build the first line (of an interrogative, motivating character) according to the patterns learned, expand the line by asking a question or using a stimulus response, transform the dialogue in accordance with a change in the situation or its details. Extracurricular work is no less important when teaching a non-native language to primary school students. It is recommended to organize joint screenings with children of cartoons, puppet shows, organization of excursions, evenings, competitions, thanks to which various speech skills (listening, answering questions, posing questions, coherent story or retelling) are developed faster.
The main result of the described work is that children develop a stable interest and a positive attitude towards learning the Russian language. They study the Russian language with joy and great interest and master the elementary forms of colloquial speech well.
- Chesnokova M. P. Methods of Teaching Russian as a Foreign Language: Study Guide. — Мoscow, 2015. — 132 p. (in Russian).
- Talipova R. T. (Development of interest in the Russian language). — Tashkent: Ukituvchi, 1992 (in Russian).