This article is devoted to the importance of forming a person who can effectively participate in cross-cultural communication. The purpose of the article is to analyze the term «bilingual communication», identify and describe the characteristic features of this concept. It is concluded that the determining factor in the formation of bilingual communication is not just the degree of proficiency in a foreign language, but the effectiveness of its use.
Keywords: communication, bilingualism, bilingual communication.
In modern society when a person needs the ability to navigate and exist in a multicultural space, language is the main tool that allows mutual understanding and interaction between representatives of different cultures. For this reason, it is obvious that teachers in schools need to pay special attention to the problem of developing students' ability to effectively participate in intercultural communication. One of the most appropriate ways to solve this issue is to focus on bilingual communication.
Bilingual communication is becoming one of the ways to improve the personal and professional training of future specialists within the modern trends in the development of education. Among the current trends in world development that cause problems that cannot be solved without significant changes in the education system is the transition to a post-industrial society, in which the scale of intercultural interaction is expanding, and in this regard, bilingual communication is of particular importance.
Let us consider the concept of «bilingual communication».
Communication (Lat. communicatio – message, transmission) is a universal concept that is used by all Sciences. But despite the great interest in this problem from philosophers, sociologists, linguists, teachers and other specialists, this issue is currently still insufficiently developed in theoretical and practical terms.
In the pedagogical dictionary, “communication” in a broad sense means interaction, both systems and individuals [7, p. 130]. This position is held by P. I. Pidkasisty [8, p. 67], who defines communication as the process of information exchange, interaction between two or more persons related to the exchange of information (messages, ideas, knowledge, ideas, strategies, etc.). Communication in the narrow sense of the word means the process of information exchange between people during joint activities. In this case, information is understood as ideas, feelings, interests, and so on. Communication in this sense appears as a facet of communication (its communicative side). It is in this sense that the term «communication process” is most often used. In our work, based on the definition of PI Pidkasisty, communication is understood as the process of exchanging information between two or more persons associated with the exchange of information.
The dissertation researches of Y. Zhukov, T. Lipatova, V. Kurbatov, M. Dementieva, and others are of big interest. They deal with communicative competence. So, Y. Zhukov considers the psychological bases of forming the communicative competence. Lipatova also studies communicative competence in her work. She has developed role-playing games, group discussions, and socio-psychological trainings.
The concept of «bilingualism” deserves special attention. In the psychological and pedagogical literature, there is no single approach to the interpretation of this term. The concept of «bilingualism» is borrowed from the French language (bilinguisme). The problem of bilingualism has always been and remains a topical and contradictory phenomenon, starting with the establishment of strict territorial borders and ending with the desire to standardize the language of administrative management and public education. Researchers of different directions study the diverse aspects of bilingualism.
Thus, in Pedagogics A. V. Timofeev gives a bilingual model of professional training of future teachers of a foreign language, N. E. Sorochkina considers an integral model of bilingual education in modern Russian schools, G. Chanysheva and V. Gabdulkhakov raise the issue of poly-linguistic competence of school children, N. Kaguy studies multicultural education of preschool children in the process of bilingual education.
In Philology bilingualism is of interest to many researchers. H. Bagikirokov studies the theoretical and applied aspects of bilingualism, O. Ivanova describes the dynamic aspects of the functioning of the bilingual lexicon, D. Kulikov considers the formation of a bilingual personality in the conditions of artificial bilingualism.
In Sociology there is also a lot of work on this problem. T. Kostromina studies the socio-cultural foundations of bilingual communication difficulties in a multi-ethnic educational space. The problem of bilingualism is widely considered in the works of famous scientists. Thus, Bernstein, E. Polivanov, N. Trubetskoy, A. Shcherba and others consider the phonetic aspects of bilingualism [10, p. 127]; G. Vishnevskaya, Giles, Crawford, and others study language changes in bilingual speech ; Sh. Mazanaev gives a comparative-historical description of bilingualism in literature; G. Vishnevskaya, U. Weinreich, Martine, G. Vogt, and others reveal the problems of interference of two languages in an individual's speech. For example, if French is the first language and «un simple soldat” (private) is spoken, the individual translates this phrase into English in the form «a simple soldier” instead of the existing form: «a private».
In Linguistics, the problem of interference is usually considered within the framework of language contacts and interference is understood as «violation by a bilingual of the norms and rules of the ratio of two contacting languages”. Research works on the problem of bilingualism by V. Avrorin, H. Bagirokov, U. Bakhtikireeva, Yu. Desherieva, Yu. Leshchenko, I. Trutneva and others are also of interest. Bilingualism appears as a complex, multi-faceted object of scientific research. In the special literature, there are different, contradictory definitions. Yu. Desheriev in one of his works defines bilingualism as «fluency or just possession of two languages” [5, p. 22]. The author of «The dictionary of foreign words and expressions” E. Zenovich holds the same opinion [9, p. 93], G. Ter-Minasova considers bilingualism as communication of people representing different cultures.
V. Avrorin says that bilingualism should be recognized as equal fluency in two languages. In other words, bilingualism begins when the degree of knowledge of the second language comes close to the degree of knowledge of the first” [1, p. 51]. At the same time, Avrorin and Desheriev note that earlier the same views were expressed by T. Bertagaev, K. Musayev and S. Onenko. Another definition of bilingualism is found in the well — known book by W. Weinreich «The language contacts”: «We will call the practice of alternating use of two languages bilingualism, and the persons who implement it bilingual” [3, p. 22]. This does not indicate the degree of language proficiency: it simply implies that the practice of using languages in turn already implies the very possibility of using them for communication.
Comparing these two positions, it can be noted that the possibility of an equally perfect command of two languages is relatively rare in life. If bilingualism is defined as perfect command of two languages, then the problem of bilingualism will be difficult to solve. Therefore, back in the 60s, research thought concluded that any degree of bilingualism should be recognized as bilingualism. For example, for J. Fishman, bilingualism begins with any ability to communicate through more than one language, for E. Haugan even with the simplest understanding of a second language.
Based on the analysis of the above-mentioned opinions of scientists, following W. Weinrach, J. Fishman, we define bilingualism as the possession of two languages in different degrees, the ability to use them in different amounts in different areas of communication. The degree and scope of knowledge and skills is characterized by the level of readiness for bilingual communication.
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