Problems in speech development of preschool children | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Автор:

Рубрика: Педагогика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №25 (315) июнь 2020 г.

Дата публикации: 17.06.2020

Статья просмотрена: 16 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Холмирзаева, С. Р. Problems in speech development of preschool children / С. Р. Холмирзаева. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2020. — № 25 (315). — С. 430-432. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/315/71650/ (дата обращения: 15.08.2020).



This article analyzes the comprehensive development of preschool children and the development of their perfect speech.

Keywords: storytelling, interactive and educational games, speech development

В данной статье анализируется всестороннее развитие детей дошкольного возраста и развитие их совершенной речи.

Ключевые слова: повествование, интерактивные и развивающие игры, развитие речи

Currently, the dominance of computer technology children seems to have everything they need for their development: computers, phones, tablets, interactive and educational games. However, the kindergarten teachers notice that children today are often very late in beginning to speak, and some kids have even defects in speech. What is the problem? It would seem that the child on the contrary should actively develop with all these innovations. Someone believes that the environment is to blame, someone blames it on parents who are not able to buy their baby everything he needs.Whenever it comes to our children, whatever happens to them, their parents are directly or indirectly responsible. Especially when it comes to a young child. After all, it is the parents who introduce the baby to this world. In order for him to feel comfortable in it, they must do everything possible.

However, the problem is that parents are too busy at work today. Therefore, they can't give proper attention to their children. For the formation of speech in the baby, you just need to constantly communicate with him. Modern teachers and psychologists advise to talk to children from their birth. So the baby will begin to recognize the voice of their loved ones and smiles when he hears the voice of his mother again. «Timely and full-fledged speech formation in preschool age is one of the main conditions for the normal development of the child and in the future its successful training in school». Every child likes to look at pictures or toys. Parents should do this together with him and at the same time tell everything they see.

«Experience has shown that the most difficult thing for a child in speech development is to describing a picture, making a story from a series of pictures, making a creative story, this is a consequence of the fact that the child has an insufficient vocabulary». That is why, it is necessary to teach children to talk about what they have read. You can start with what children love most — fairy tales. First you need to take the smallest and simplest in content, which contains a lot of reiterations. For example, «Zumrad and Qimmat», «Ochil dasturhan». In these tales, all actions take place along the same trajectory. Only characters change. It is necessary to read fairy tales until the child begins to retell them. However, it is necessary to read not monotonously, but expressively, in order to attract the child's attention.

In addition, rhymes, tongue twisters, riddles are easy to remember and develop memory. They develop both active and passive vocabulary of children. For correct pronunciation of sounds, it is good to use tongue twisters. The baby should also be taught to hear and distinguish one sound from another.Academician M. M. Koltsova found that the development of speech is closely related to the development of fine motor skills of the fingers. So, you need to try to attract the child's attention to such items as cubes, mosaics, and constructor. The younger the baby, the larger items for the game should be used. First, this is due to the fact that the child can swallow small details. Second, it's easier for kids to grab a large item. Today, there are many toys that develop fine motor skills. These are special soft cubes, educational mats, constructed from various materials, etc. For those families who can't afford to buy such toys, it is possible to make them yourself with your own hands. You can sew such cubes from old clothes, filling them with various materials. For example, peas, cereals. Educational mats can also be made at home from a simple blanket. There are many instructions on how to make such products on the Internet. In addition, you can use your imagination.

Gradually, as the baby grows, you need to provide him with smaller details for the game. For example, the same constructor or mosaic, only with smaller parts. But it is necessary not only to give the task to build something, but also to show how to work correctly with the constructor or mosaic. At the same time, you can tell your child about their color and shape. You can also develop fine motor skills using special finger exercises. For example, the well-known finger counting games, the game «Fist-palm», etc.

Children also like when it is possible use some ordinary items in a new form. A simple example is plain paper. Children are always interested in how they turn into bulky toys. Even the baby can make them. Let him crumple the paper and wrap it with thread to make a ball. It can also be played, for example, to throw in a bucket or a target. Older children can fold their own airplane or boat. But for this purpose it is necessary to show them consistently how they can be made. Kids ' memory is quite good, so they will quickly make a new toy, and in the future they will make it themselves, without the participation of parents.

In addition, the child should be given pencils or brushes. On the one hand, he can simply twist them in his hands, putting them between his palms. This develops fine motor skills. On the other hand, he can start drawing. Of course, at first it will just be lines. Then you should ask your child to put a point and draw a straight line. And only then stop at simple geometric shapes. Most children like to draw circles. Children of older teenage age are able to draw an object from a picture, paint or simply shade the shapes. Parents will show how can it be done, and then the baby will continue to perform the task. This also contributes to the formation of creative imagination and memory development. Sometimes poor sound pronunciation is associated with lethargy of the muscles of the tongue, lips, and lower jaw. In this case, you should tell the child a story about the «merry tongue». He is forbidden to leave the house, but he is very naughty and always looking for a way out. Because of this, when the mouth opens, it always rests against the palate. When the tongue does manage to get out of the house, it can reach the chin, then the nose. Also, the baby should be invited to click his tongue or talk in a whisper. All these classes will strengthen the baby's tongue muscles.

It is necessary to develop the child's speech not only at home, but also on the street, and when you are visiting guests, you should do it constantly. For example, on the way to kindergarten, you can consider the surrounding nature, tell your child what is what, what color or shape it is. When you see an animal, you should show the child how it talks. For example, a cat says «meow», etc.

It follows from all the above that it is necessary to work on the formation of the child's speech constantly. To do this, you should communicate more with the baby, helping him to comprehend this world.

Keep in mind that incorrect speech can lead to problems in the future. These can be: incorrect written speech, poor reading, problems in communicating with their friends, etc. All this affects the further behavior of children. They become withdrawn, avoid communication, and unsure of themselves. All these factors are one of the reasons for committing suicide in adolescence. For example, delayed speech development can lead to such serious problems in the future. In order to avoid this, it is necessary to diagnose the problems in speech development and to solve them.

References:

  1. Vygotsky, L. S. Pedagogical psychology /L. S. Vygotsky-M.: Pedagogy, 1991. — 311 p.
  2. Zhinkin, N. I. Speech as a means of delivering information /N. I. Zhinkin-M.: Enlightenment, 1982. — 198s.
  3. Miheeva E. I. the Development of speech in children. — Moscow: Norma, 2011. — 431 p.
  4. Zhinkin N. I. Speech as a conductor of information. — Moscow Prospect, 2014. — 398


Ключевые слова

storytelling, interactive and educational games, speech development
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