The article publishes up-to-date information about industrial enterprises within the boundaries of the sanitary protection zone to perform a protective function.
Keywords: Legislation, population, plantations, activities, pollutants.
Green spaces are performed sanitary-hygienic, structural and planning, decorative and artistic functions. Plants create a favorable microclimate, enrich the air with oxygen, absorb harmful emissions, provide optimal humidity, have a noise-canceling effect, cement the soil layer and fight against its water and wind erosion. The aesthetic role of plants, their participation in the architectural and planning organization of the territories of enterprises and villages, in the creation of recreation areas is also important.
The following federal laws are considered:
− “On Environmental Protection” dated January 10, 2002 No. 7-FZ ;
− “On the sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population” dated March 30, 1999 No. 52-FZ .
These laws regulate the development of regulatory documents in the field of environmental protection and ensuring favorable living conditions. The Federal Law “On Environmental Protection” contains article 44, which reflects “Environmental Protection Requirements for the Placement, Design, Construction, Reconstruction and Settlement of Settlements”, it states that “in the planning and construction of urban and settlements” comply with environmental requirements in accordance with the law. ”
Article 12 of the Law “On the Sanitary and Epidemiological Welfare of the Population” of March 30, 1999 defines the sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the planning and construction of urban and populated areas, as well as the organization of favorable conditions for the life and health of the population .
In accordance with Article 39, it is indicated that, as part of the project for the protection of buildings and structures, measures are being taken to improve the territories. Construction is mandatory and must be completed.
The main set of rules for the design of landscaping is described in SP 403.1325800.2018, industrial territory. Rules for the design of beautification, SP 82.13330.2016. Land improvement, updated version of SNiP III-10–75 .
Objects of the plant world are able to show sensitivity to gaseous toxicants due to the fact that:
− have a unique filtering ability;
− absorb from the air and neutralize a large number of toxic components of technogenic emissions in tissues;
− contribute to maintaining gas balance in the atmosphere.
At the same time, it is very important to find a harmonious combination of the existing natural landscape and artificially created umbrellas, which will further ensure the cleanliness of the air basin and its sanitary and hygienic condition at industrial enterprises.
A variety of forms of green spaces allows you to create landscape compositions, improve the quality of architectural and cladding structures in general, while performing various sanitary-protective functions. Depending on the nature of planting trees and shrubs, various species, their density and height, the creation of green screens, lawns, and also taking into account weather conditions, have a significant impact on reducing noise in the environment. The noise level decreases from 12 to 35 background with multi-row planting of trees and shrubs with a strip width of 10... 50 m. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the wind speed, which allows to reduce the wind speed by 50... 80 % .
The principle of gardening largely depends on the nature of production processes, the presence of harmful effects in the atmosphere and the planning structure of the enterprise. Performing landscape design using various combinations: lawns, shrubs and tall trees, taking into account the requirements of the climate and climate, will allow you to create landscape compositions that fit well with the vacation spots of workers. Their architecture and microclimate were expanded to include water bodies and small architectural forms.
The total percentage of improvement of industrial zones ranges from 11 to 27 % and is determined by the rational zoning of buildings, structures and transport communications.
Landscaping of enterprises is carried out on the basis of planting material in accordance with the nature of the air environment and climatic conditions, with landscaping and spatial organization of adjacent urban development.
Methods of improvement are varied and directly depend on the architectural and planning decisions of industrial enterprises, the nature of their technological processes, local climatic conditions and urban planning situation. One object enterprise is characterized by peripheral landscaping along the perimeter of the site with the development of landscaping of the plant. This allows you to organically fit into the environment of the city, enriching its landscape architecture.
For multidisciplinary enterprises, the most widely used method is the decentralized placement of recreation areas in the immediate vicinity of food outlets, entrances to production shops and office buildings. A variety of compositions of landscape design elements complements and reveals the architectural and planning solution for the entire site.
The composition of green spaces allows creating contrasting accents, improving the appearance of the industrial ensemble and contributing to the achievement of the architectural unity of the complex. Obtaining contrast is especially beneficial for machine-building enterprises, where large one-story buildings with uniform monotonous facades predominate.
The criterion for the comfort of decisions made on improvement should be considered their compliance with regulatory indicators, ensuring:
− the completeness of the provision of services in the field of social amenities;
− the nomenclature of small architectural forms and planning elements, the size and availability of planning elements of improvement;
− the required sanitary and hygienic and environmental conditions. The Town Planning Code of the Russian Federation: Federal Law of the Russian Federation dated December 29, 2004 No. 190 — Federal Law (as amended on July 21, 2011 No. 257 Federal Law .
The enterprises of chemistry, metallurgy, petrochemistry, gas and other industries, occupying large territories, have a pronounced high-altitude silhouette of engineering structures and open equipment (installations), which can be viewed from great distances.
The industrial nature of the development of these enterprises is harmoniously linked with the green array of sanitary protection zones, emphasizing the contrast of the landscape and the architectural expressiveness of the silhouette.
In order to increase the efficiency of fulfilling barrier functions, the territory of C33 industrial enterprises must be landscaped. Landscaping of sanitary protection zones of industrial enterprises, which have a significant negative impact on the environment, is especially relevant. At the same time, in the new edition of SanPiN 2.2.1 / 18.104.22.1680–03 there is no concept of the “normative percentage of landscaping C33”. In accordance with the current legislation, the materials of the project for their landscaping and improvement are not required to be included in the C33 projects. This is explained by the fact that in most cases the territory of the land plot on which C33 is located is not the property of the industrial enterprise and is not registered for its use.
Thus, on the territory C33 of an industrial enterprise, economic activity on the use of land plots of various entities can be carried out.
In the conditions of dense urban development on the territory of C33, it is almost impossible to provide a standard percentage of its landscaping.
In conditions of dense urban development on the territory of C33, it is practically impossible to provide a standard percentage of its landscaping, since within the boundaries of the sanitary protection zone there are often objects that interfere with the planting of such a number of trees and shrubs that would provide conditions for a real reduction in noise or airborne harmful emissions.
When landscaping sanitary protection zones, mixed tree-shrub plants with good leafiness, high dust-absorbing properties, gas resistance, and the ability to grow rapidly should be preferred.
The species composition and planting patterns of green spaces depend on a variety of factors:
− From illumination, soil moisture;
− Degrees of air pollution;
− Characteristics of priority air pollutants;
− The presence of transit passages and driveways near planting sites and other factors.
Improvement C33 represents a whole range of activities aimed at creating a cultural, aesthetic appearance of the enterprise, maximizing the reduction of production hazards emitted by the enterprise’s shops, reducing noise, airing the area, and improving the microclimate.
The degree of greening of the territory C33 in accordance with the “Guidelines for the Design of Sanitary Protection Zones of Industrial Enterprises”  must be at least:
− 60 % of the area — for objects with sizes C33 not more than 100 m;
− 50 % of its area — for objects with sizes C33 from 101 to 500 m;
− 40 % of its area — for objects with sizes C33 from 501 to 1000 m or more.
By properly landscaping the C33 territory, it is possible to quite effectively improve the environment around the emission sources and prevent negative impacts on the residential area.
Under the current legislation, landscaping and improvement of the sanitary protection zone of industrial enterprises is possible in cases where the sanitary protection zone is within the boundaries of the land owned by this enterprise or provided to it for use. If the territory of the sanitary protection zone is located on the territory of land plots of other entities, then landscaping and landscaping is possible only by agreement with these entities.
For newly built industrial enterprises and production facilities that have a significant negative impact on the environment, it is advisable at the legislative level to establish a requirement regarding the need to register the territory of land within their sanitary protection zones as property or for use in the manner prescribed by law. This would allow to carry out without restrictions the necessary measures for improvement and landscaping in the territory of sanitary protection zones of such enterprises .
Implementation of landscaping and landscaping of the sanitary protection zone, taking into account a set of factors, is an effective way to improve the quality of the environment around industrial enterprises and prevent negative impacts on residential areas.
Rationally accomplished landscaping of industrial areas helps reduce employee fatigue and increase labor productivity.
- Federal Law «On Environmental Protection» dated 10.01.2002 N 7-ФЗ (latest revision).
- Federal Law «On the Sanitary and Epidemiological Well-Being of the Population» dated March 30, 1999 N 52-ФЗ (latest revision).
- SP 403.1325800.2018 industrial territories. Rules for the design of landscaping.
- Guidelines for assessing the necessary sound reduction in settlements and determining the required acoustic efficiency, taking into account sound absorption. Approved by order of the Ministry of Transport of Russia No. OS-362-r dated 21.04. 2003
- The Town Planning Code of the Russian Federation: Federal Law of the Russian Federation dated December 29, 2004 No. 190 — Federal Law (as amended on July 21, 2011 No. 257) — Federal Law.
- Guidance on the design of sanitary protection zones of industrial enterprises. M.: Stroyizdat, 1984. 33 p.
- SanPiN 2.2.1 / 22.214.171.1240–03. Sanitary protection zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, structures and other objects. — M., 2003.29 s.