Currently, there is an update and a change in education. Our country has undertaken to reform its higher education system according to uniform standards. Today, a person becomes the main price of society, and the development of personality is the goal of education. The main trend of changing the priority goals of education is to put the tasks of developing the personality of the student on the basis of his internal potential into the forefront.
Both domestic and foreign methods of teaching foreign languages in the university pays great attention to teaching reading in a foreign language. Reading is one of the leading activities of students at the university level, because learning to read allows one to form reading skills and abilities, to form adjacent language and speech skills, to transform the learner's knowledge in all the studied disciplines.
The university methodology forms a student who studies a foreign language as a second specialty, certain personal and professional qualities. The basic provisions for the achievement of this goal in teaching individual reading are the personally-oriented approach, the individualization of training, the support of educational strategies, which opens up additional reserves for the intensification of the process of learning a foreign language.
In modern society, the most important are the areas in the psychological and pedagogical sciences and the daily practice of teaching, which are associated with the creation of special educational technologies focused on the personality and individuality of the students.
The development of the scientific foundations of the individualization and differentiation of teaching in pedagogy, psychology, methods of teaching various subjects has been going on for more than a century and a half and is associated with the names of researchers who dealt with the problems of teaching a foreign language.
However, despite the large number of works on this problem, it should be stated that theoretical positions and ways of practical implementation of teaching individual reading of students learning English as a second specialty remain unexplored.
Individual reading is considered by us as a component of the curriculum in a foreign language; an organizational form of teaching reading; a type of reading.
Individual reading as a type of reading is a complex of skills and abilities that trainees should possess in order to extract information with varying degrees of depth and accuracy of understanding. Individual reading can be characterized as a non-translational, communicative reading; fluent or in slow motion; "mature" reading, which is characterized by synthesis processes. Organizationally, this type of reading corresponds to an independent, extracurricular, additional reading.
When teaching individual reading as part of a personality-oriented approach, individualization is realized, on the one hand, in the organization of the learning process (each student reads his or her individual text or work), and on the other hand, in the orientation of the teaching model on students' personal characteristics strategies in reading.
The method of teaching individual reading to university students who study English as a second specialty (second year of study) must ensure the formation of skills and abilities in individual reading that will allow students to understand the type and purposeful meaning of the text, orient themselves in it in accordance with the communicative task, to extract information at different levels (linguistic, factually meaningful, semantic).
Frequently, individual reading is considered as a form of independent work that students perform outside the classroom, and the individual psychological characteristics of students are not taken into account when selecting texts for reading. As a rule, such a selection is carried out by the teacher himself, and the proposed assignments to the text are often of a formal nature and are the same for all students.
Thus, the term “Individual reading” in this work has a wider interpretation than independent work. If self-directed work is an activity that is organized without the help of a teacher, then individual reading, being in essence its independent work assigned at home, is oriented towards the work of each individual, each person. In addition, this is one of the ways to increase the time allotted for learning a foreign language. In terms of teaching English as a second specialty, this is of particular importance, as it must compensate for the lack of classroom hours devoted to teaching a second specialty in general and reading in this language in particular.
Currently, teaching reading is especially important in connection with the increase in the number of specialties in universities, where a foreign language (and English including) is studied as a second specialty. These are not only the faculties of foreign languages, where English is the second foreign language after the first German, French, but also other faculties, where primary school teachers, history teachers, etc. are trained.
The study of scientific and methodological literature and practical experience in organizing the educational process allows us to conclude that students, primarily students who study English as a second specialty, do not sufficiently possess the skills and abilities of individual reading to experience both general and specific difficulties:
− lexical, the difficulty of recognizing the words studied and vocabulary; the inability to independently semanticize a word with the help of a con-textual guess (66.6% of fourth-year students who study English as a second specialty admit that they experience difficulties associated with not knowing the realities of the country of the language being studied); inability to determine the meaning of a word by word-formation elements;
− grammatical inability to understand the structure of a complex sentence; difficulties in understanding species forms;
− logical-compositional, the difficulties in understanding the structure and semantic links of the text: the inability in the process of reading to divide the text into complete semantic pieces, to establish the semantic relations that exist between the segment and the whole text; difficulties in understanding inter-phrases in the text.
The rate of reading in a foreign language among students studying it as a second specialty is significantly lower compared to the rate of reading in a native language. In their free time, students prefer to limit themselves to reading books only in their native language, which gives them a much larger amount of information (actual, aesthetic, etc.) for an equal period of time [1, p.26].
And so we can conclude, in our opinion, teaching individual reading in a foreign language to students of a pedagogical university will be effective under the condition:
− accounting of psycholinguistic, linguistic and didactic features of individual reading as a kind of reading, on the one hand, and as an organizational form of education, on the other;
− development of the technology of teaching individual reading to students based on educational strategies that are based on communicative and educational skills and ensure the implementation of a personality-oriented approach in the selection of content and organization of the process of teaching individual reading;
− observance of the stages of learning: from the preparatory stage to the stage of mature individual reading;
− use of authentic materials and a special set of exercises, developed in accordance with the selected training strategies.
- N.D. Galskova, N.I. Gez, N.F. Koryakovtseva. The program of teaching foreign languages to schoolchildren with an in-depth study of foreign languages, lyceums and gymnasiums: - M., 2000.
- Solovova E. N. Methodology of teaching foreign languages: a basic course: a manual for students ped. universities and teachers /- M.: Astrel, 2008.