This article deals with the research of terms competence and competency in works of American and Russian scholars. Different method of approaches of research terms are considered in the article. Competence and competency are analyzed in the methodical dictionary. Linguo-cultural competence is presented as required field of knowledge in the system of philological education.
Key words: competence, competence, competence building approach, knowledge, skills, abilities.
The study of English in the territory of Uzbekistan in recent years has been actively gaining momentum not only among young people, but also among the older generation. This is due to the fact that English as a language of international communication occupies the first lines among the world languages; opens the opportunity to receive education abroad and the experience gained to spread in Uzbekistan; expands opportunities for sharing experience with foreign partners, etc. For these and many other reasons, English is gaining popularity in the modern world.
The reasons for learning English can be both socially necessary and personally for each individual, i.e. for someone due to professional requirements, the ability to use foreign resources, etc. In this regard, emphasis is placed on the level of knowledge of the English language — the ability to conduct a dialogue in a foreign language; knowledge of the language with a dictionary, i.e. translate using a bilingual dictionary; knowledge of the language is thorough, the ability not only to conduct communicative activities, but also to conduct professional activities in a specialty in a foreign language, etc.
Currently, business speech is full of terms of foreign language origin (predominantly from the English language). In the discourse of modern professional communication, you can find such words as manager, presentation, communication, competence, specialist, and phrases: business partner, competent specialist, competent teacher, competent leader, etc. The most high-frequency in use from this list are competence and competent. These words define a person as a master, a highly qualified specialist, i.e. a person with competence in their professional activities. This is due to the fact that in modern areas of human professional activity, professionalism and craftsmanship are highly valued and give preference to a competent specialist. The word competence of English origin is “competence”, which entered other languages and educational disciplines through a competence-based approach to learning, which is characterized by the formation of a foreign language communicative competence, i.e. the ability to carry out foreign language interpersonal and intercultural communication with native speakers implies a real practical knowledge of a foreign language [1, p.448]. Competence-based approach to learning implies the ability of an individual to perform in a non-native language mental and communicative functions, interpersonal communication functions; knowledge of the culture, traditions and customs of the people of the foreign language being studied, i.e. implies linguoculturological knowledge of the individual in the foreign language being studied.
Consequently, the term competence is used to denote a person’s professional personal qualities. There is a problem in the definition of this term, since in the studies of competence of different countries different definitions have been put into this term. Research scientists from the United States associated competence with the basic characteristics of a person, which determine his outstanding success in certain activities. In most parts of Europe, competence is often associated with abilities, personality traits, and acquired knowledge. In the UK, the prevailing view is that competence should be defined as the compliance of an individual's performance with established standards [5, p.32].
In the new dictionary of methodological terms Azimov E. G., Shchukina A. N. Competence is represented as a term that has become widespread in the literature on pedagogy and linguodidactics, which refers to the ability of an individual to perform any activity based on life experience and acquired knowledge and skills [1, p.448]. In the same dictionary, competence (from Lat. Competens — capable) is presented as a combination of knowledge, skills, abilities, formed in the process of training a particular discipline, as well as the ability to perform a liter. activities based on acquired knowledge, skills, abilities [1, p.448].
Competence as a set of ZUN implies understanding and knowledge in various areas of educational activity. The following types of competence can be distinguished: grammatical; discursive; communicative; compensatory; grammatical; discursive; communicative; compensatory; lexical; linguistic; linguistic studies; narrative; total; general humanitarian; general education; pragmatic; subject; professional; speech; social; sociocultural; sociolinguistic; country specific competence; strategic; technological; educational and cognitive; phonological; existential; language [1, p.448]. Thus, competence and competence are not doublet terms. Competence — these are skills acquired as a result of life experience, competence — skills obtained from training.
Competence in the educational structure also takes place in teaching a foreign language. Teaching English for future philological specialists requires the following knowledge and skills from a student:
1) the student must perceive non-native speech, express thoughts in the foreign language being studied;
2) to translate from the target language to the mother tongue, from the native to the target;
3) search for literature in English, its analysis, discussion at seminars;
4) correctly write and be able to correct errors in the text;
5) knowledge of a foreign language at all levels of the language: phonetics, morphemic, vocabulary, syntax,
6) know the history, culture of the people, customs, speaking in this language.
All this is necessary in order to create a general and deep understanding of the language being studied, so that the future specialist is a master in his professional activity and it is easy to use this knowledge in practice. It is very important for a student of philological faculty to develop linguocultural competence, since culture is the basis for the formation of the student’s thinking and activity, culture influences his language picture of the world and its perception. This necessitates the formation of competence about culture and cultural linguistics. Maslova V. A. defines cultural studies as a science that explores the understanding and assessment of knowledge about the world, humanity and its history, works of art and many other spheres of human activity, which defines it from the point of view of social and cultural being. Language studies examines the principles that are displayed and fixed in the language in the form of mental models of the linguistic picture of the world. The subject of linguoculturology is the interaction of language and culture [3, p.208]. Vorobev V. V. “Linguistic and cultural competence” considers “knowledge to be the ideal speaker — listener to the entire system of cultural values expressed in language” [2, p.17].
In the process of forming knowledge about culture, customs, history, students develop all types of speech activity, the language in which instruction is conducted is revealed in full. The display of the culture of a language proceeds during the storage and study of a certain stock of information about the main linguistic units of cultural linguistics. Such linguocultural units must be accumulated and assimilated, since knowledge must be consolidated, confirmed, repeated and actualized [4, p.130].
- Азимов Э. Г., Щукин А. Н. Новый словарь методических терминов и понятий (теория и практика обучения языкам). — М.: Издательство ИКАР, 2009. — С.448.
- Воробьев В. В. Лингвокультурология. М., РУДН, 2008.С.17.
- Маслова В. А. Лингвокультурология: Учеб.пособие для студ. высш.учеб,заведений. — М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2001. — С.208.
- Халупо О. И. Базовые единицы лингвокультурной компетенции носителя языка / Язык и культура, Томский государственный университет, № 2, 2012, С. 130.
- Ярыгин О. Н. Метаморфозы понятий «компетентность» и «компетенция» в русскоязычной терминологии компетентностного подхода / Педагогічна наука: історія, теорія, практика, тенденції розвитку, Тольяттинский государственный университет, 2010 № 4.С.32.