This article focuses on the use of authentic texts in the teaching of a foreign language. At the beginning of the article there are given concepts about authentic texts, its types and opinions of scientists. The article also analyzes the functions and principles of authentic texts in the teaching of a foreign language and their role in the development of language skills.
Key words:. authentic text, grammatical and lexical structure, reading, writing, speaking, listening, motivation, synthetic text, authenticity, regional geography, phrase, neologism, youth language, dialect, grammar
Studying only grammatical and lexical structures, it is impossible to master a foreign language completely, in addition to this, their communicative functions should also be studied. Writing grammatically correct sentences is not enough to learn a language; one must also develop the ability to use these sentences in communication and speech. Authentic texts, as well as written, as well as colloquial, play a particularly important role in the acquisition of communication skills, providing a rich «real» context. Grammar serves to promote the development of understanding of texts in a foreign language, and also helps to create your own texts. When it comes to authentic texts, in most cases it is associated not only with reading skills, but also with the text’s own production (writing skills), because they are also authentic texts.
“Authentic” comes from the Latin word “authenticus”, which means real, true, genuine [1, p.472]. They provide constructive, creative language work. In the method of teaching a foreign language, it says that “the text is a written source from which students and teachers create language material for exercises.
The text in the teaching of a foreign language is an integral language aggregate (in monologue or dialogical form), which is recorded in writing or as a phonetic record and perceived by the student visually or audibly (reading and listening). Text developed or selected in accordance with its purpose, which conveys specific content, is used to develop basic language activities such as listening, speaking, reading or writing.
According to I. R. Halperin [2, p.139], “texts are the results of speech or written actions that are included in complex communicative actions that occur in specific situations and are addressed to specific recipients. Every text has a specific plan of action.
Each text is fastened with a coordinated topic, that is, with the main or guiding idea. In the teaching of foreign languages, the text makes a significant contribution to the relaxation of the lesson, encourages students to read and, above all, increases their motivation. And motivation in the audience is very important.
Texts that transmit authentic, personal information can counteract the alienation of the student from the teaching materials and from himself. In the teaching of foreign languages two types of texts are often used: authentic and synthetic (didactic) texts. Authentic texts can be found in everyday life in the country of the target language for example: texts from newspapers, periodicals, advertisements, schedules, literature. Authentic texts contain specific content, hints or report on certain events (for example, text in a newspaper). Synthetic texts appear only in textbooks, they are built only for textbooks, in order to clarify the grammatical rules of the language.
By the word «authentic» is often synonymous with «documentary», «real» «real». It is intended to refer to opposition values as “made”, “fabricated” and “false”. The discussion of authentic text has become in recent years all loud and controversial. There is still uncertainty and disagreement about what is actually “authentic” and how to apply authentic texts in the teaching of foreign languages. The characteristic of «authentic» finds different opinions.
According to I. R. Halperin [2, p.139], authentic text can only come close to the standard of native speakers. This means that all texts, also didactically modified, are authentic. According to E. V. Nosonovich, “every literary text can be considered as original text, but not every one of them is authentic” [3, p.18]. By authentic texts they understand only texts that are “a real event, a fact of objective reality”. In addition to authentic texts, J.-J. Jalolov [4, p.368] also distinguishes the authenticity of the language, the authenticity of the country's knowledge, the authenticity of the situation and the authenticity of the students and the learning process.
Authentic texts should prepare the reality of a foreign language in life situations. On the other hand, the language lesson should carry out a real picture with a foreign language. This requires extensive information and knowledge that can only be obtained by working with reliable facts and texts. To successfully learn a foreign language, authentic texts are needed that arouse commitment and motivation. Working with authentic texts should make connections with linguistic reality visible and increase the attractiveness of the content. Because the main purpose of learning a foreign language is to reduce clichés and prejudices and create the ability of thinking itself. Texts must be authentic, so that the representation of a foreign language in the lessons brings together meetings and the use of a foreign language in life. Often textbooks offer texts in which certain lexical and grammatical phenomena are practiced, without the practice of understanding and editing texts. When a student arrives in the country of the target language, he is forced to act authenticly. In this case, he will be helped by an authentic text, which has the function of providing an opportunity for communication and initiating the ability to communicate and understand. In order for a student to recognize and apply a similar text in a real life situation, a text edited for training purposes can be manipulated only to such an extent that it must contain signs of recognition with real text, i.e. here validity criteria are met and maintained. These validity criteria include [5, p.56]:
− Each text has its own external form. This applies not only to printed texts that are recognized by the external form, for example, “Ads” in newspapers, but also for audio texts that are also noisy, for example, a football report on the radio.
− Media is mass media. The texts are due to various media. For example, football review, depending on whether it is given in a newspaper, on the radio or on television.
− External properties also include the addressee. The text on specific issues will be written differently for specialists than for the general public.
− Grammatical and lexical features — neologisms, creative phrases, puns, additions and ambiguous words, dialect, youth language, irregular language forms, incomplete grammatical or syntactic content, etc.
− Phonological features — regional pronunciation, changes in volume and pitch, fluctuations, behavior, etc.
− Дискурсивные особенности — прерывания (другими говорящими), повторения, противоречия и т. д.
− Жестикуляционный особенности — имитационное и жестикуляционное сопровождение высказываний, невербальные перерывы, смех, кашель и т. д.
Для того, чтобы аутентичные тексты использовались в образовательных целях, требуется, чтобы эти критерии достоверности сохранялись. В любом случае аутентичность не должна быть нарушена. Задача аутентичных текстов является не только введение различных тем в коммуникацию, но и сделать уроки более интересными и мотивирующими.
Использование аутентичных текстов должно привести к соединению аудитории с реальной жизнью. Хорошо отобранные аутентичные тексты могут преподнести разнообразие и изменения в преподавании иностранного языка. В таких текстах могут быть задействованы, практикованы и закреплены все навыки, благодаря чему аутентичная информация может стимулировать учащихся к общению и таким образом, оказывать на них очень мотивирующее воздействие.
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- Гальперин И. Р. Текст как объект лингвистического исследования. — Москва: Наука, 1981. — С. 139.
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