Managing the motivation of learning a foreign language is one of the central problems of school teaching methods. A foreign language as a subject has a number of specific features, one of which is mastering a foreign language by learning the ability to communicate in a foreign language. Unfortunately, at the moment, learning a foreign language is mainly of an artificially educational nature due to the lack of “natural need” for students to communicate in a foreign language. In this regard, the teacher is faced with the task of creating an environment of foreign language speech communication in the process of learning a language as close as possible to natural conditions.
Since motivation is a multifaceted phenomenon, the content of education should include a whole range of means for its maintenance. In the system of learning a foreign language as a foreign language culture, first and foremost important are means of maintaining motivation for cognitive, developmental and educational activities, which ultimately causes communicative motivation in a foreign language learner. In the general structure of motivation, the dominant motive is the dominant motive determining educational activity and the formation of an attitude towards it. This is a cognitive motive, since it is based on a constant desire for knowledge; and there is also a connection with the content and organizational side of the learning activity itself. In the process of learning activities, private motives emerge to act, guiding the formulation, adoption, and resolution of individual tasks in order to achieve the specific goals of teaching foreign language speech communication. Cognitive motives in mastering a foreign language are differentiated as follows: interest in a foreign language per se contributes to the formation of motives for the analysis of linguistic phenomena, all kinds of foreign language classes in form and content, and the development of linguistic thinking; the possibility of using a foreign language as a means of exchanging information, acquiring knowledge with its help, studying culture, history, development and reality of the country of the language being studied, expanding horizons forms the motive of attitude towards a foreign language as a necessary means of cognitive activity. The motivational aspect is also crucial for the activation of all psychological processes - thinking, perception, understanding and mastering foreign language material. To do this, it is necessary to increase the levels of motivation, contributing to the development of knowledge and intellectual activity among students, striving ultimately to increase the efficiency of the learning process.
“Internal condition”, mental and physical experiences (needs), a conscious internal or external need (motives) give meaning, thereby stimulating speech-thinking activity, thinking, and lead to the desire to learn more and learn to think in language. Thanks to the situation, the needs of the individual are met, and positive attitudes toward learning a foreign language are created. Thus, motives, interests, situations, attitudes are interdependent, constitute a harmonious unity of the individual, are an internal energizer. Since learning foreign communication occurs through communication, which is a purely personal process, in which ideas are shared, interests are transmitted, character traits are transferred, taking into account personal characteristics of students in communication education is of paramount importance. Without taking into account the above factors, students' speech actions are detached from their real feelings, thoughts, interests, that is, the source that feeds speech activity is lost. It is the consideration of personal characteristics that leads to the emergence of situational communicative motivation, that is, it ensures the initiative participation of the student in educational or real communication. Of the variety of properties of personal individualization, providing a challenge to the communicative motivation, traditionally offers an account of the six most methodically important properties of the student as a person: the context of the activity; personal experience; spheres of desires, interests, inclinations; emotional and sensual sphere; worldview; student status in the group. All this encourages students to learn. The success of mastering a foreign language in its cognitive function contributes to the formation of linguistic intuition; satisfaction of the actual cognitive motives in the study of a foreign language forms a steady motivation for constant work with him; The use of a foreign language to obtain certain information (reading magazines, newspapers, explanatory dictionaries, etc.) makes this language indispensable in the student's cognitive activity, while the foreign language itself enhances the general cognitive activity of students, and consequently, the motivation of learning the language increases. Scientists who study the motivation of learning a foreign language, identify a number of types of motivation, taking into account the individual development needs of students:
1) communicative-motivational, determined on the basis of the need for communication;
2) linguo-cognitive motivation, based on the student's desire to learn linguistic phenomena;
3) cross-cultural motivation, depending on the subject and emotional interest of the student.
Since the specificity of the average stage of learning a foreign language is determined by “targets, peculiarities of language proficiency, the nature of the material being digested (volume, complexity, informativeness),” further development of communicative skills and speech skills continues at this stage. This allows you to successfully combine the elements of country studies with language phenomena, which act not only as a means of communication, but also as a way to familiarize students with a new reality for them. Such an approach to learning a foreign language at school in many respects provides not only a more effective solution of practical, general educational, developmental and educational tasks, but also contains tremendous opportunities to challenge and further support learning motivation. At the same time, the main task is “the study of linguistic units, which most clearly reflect the peculiarities of the culture of the people — the speaker of the language and its environment” The basis for this can be linguistic studies, which has become firmly established in the practice of teaching a foreign language, thanks to the studies of E.M. Vereshchagin and V.G. Kostomarov. It is an exit to the level of possible expansion of regional geographic material that can logically and effectively solve problems of strengthening the sociocultural orientation of foreign language education in general, expanding background knowledge, modernizing the lexical base and naturally enhancing the motivational aspect of learning a foreign language. The practice of teaching a foreign language shows that students with a constant interest relate to history, culture, art, mores, customs, traditions, way of life of the people, peer hobbies, etc. At the same time, it is necessary to carefully select the material, since the education system is faced with the task of preparing students for cultural, professional and personal communication with representatives of countries with other social traditions, social structure and language culture. Thus, the consistency of the teaching content and its presentation methods with the cognitive needs and interests of students counteracts the formation of a negative attitude. Optimally selected material strengthens all components of motivation: needs, interests, emotions, motives themselves. The formation of a sustainable level of motivation for the teaching requires the teacher to select appropriate educational materials that would represent a cognitive, communicative, professional values that are creative, would stimulate the mental activity of students. The use in the educational process of a foreign language cultural material creates conditions that motivate the learning process, and also contributes to the deepening and expansion of the field of cognitive activity of students.
- Gotlib, R.А. Social demand for knowledge of a foreign language / R.А.Gotlib / Sociological Studies, No. 2, 2009. P. 122–127.
- Teaching foreign languages. Materials for specialist educational institutions. M., 2003. 192 p.