This article discusses speech etiquette as a component of the cultural minimum. The choice of formulas of speech etiquette plays a special role in the study of a foreign language. The origins of speech etiquette lie in the ancient period of the history of language. Human speech activity, from the point of view of the members of the archaic society, can have a direct impact on people, animals and the world; regulation of this activity is connected, first of all, with the desire to cause certain events or, on the contrary, to avoid them.
Key words: speech etiquette, formulas of speech etiquette, act of communication, requirements of speech etiquette, archaic society.
Speech etiquette is included in the linguistic cultural picture of the world. Possession, understanding and choice of formulas of speech etiquette depends on the behavior of the people. The choice of formulas of speech etiquette plays a special role in the study of a foreign language. Without speech etiquette it is impossible neither to enter into communication, nor to maintain communication, nor to complete it. Speech etiquette is a set of requirements to the form, content, order, character and situational relevance of statements adopted in this culture. Speech etiquette, in particular, includes words and expressions used by people to say goodbye, requests, apologies, accepted in various situations, forms of treatment, intonation features that characterize polite speech, etc. The study of speech etiquette occupies a special position at the junction of linguistics, theory and history of culture, ethnography, country studies, psychology and other humanities [1, p. 4].
In a broad sense, speech etiquette characterizes almost any successful act of communication. Therefore, speech etiquette is associated with the so-called postulates of speech communication, which make possible and successful interaction of communication participants. These are the postulates formulated by G. P. Grice, which are derived from the principle of cooperation underlying all communication. The postulates of speech communication include: the postulates of quality (the message should not be false or without proper grounds), quantity (the message should not be too short or too long), relationship (the message should be relevant to the addressee) and method (the message should be clear, clear, do not contain words and expressions incomprehensible to the addressee). Violation of one or more of these postulates in varying degrees entails a communicative failure. Other important requirements-for example, the postulates of politeness (any message should be polite, tactful, etc.) — are not included in the Grice number of fundamental, since the task of the message is considered to be an effective transfer of information. It is significant that even with such a utilitarian formulation of the problem it is necessary to consider the requirements of speech etiquette as the necessary conditions for successful communication. Moreover, these requirements are important for messages that have other functions: establishing interpersonal contacts, attracting listeners to their side, etc. In these cases, the postulates of politeness inevitably come to the fore. Others, such as the postulates of the relationship, are pushed to the periphery. Thus, in many advertising textbooks it is recommended to refrain not only from any statements that offend or offend the addressee, but also from statements that could cause him unwanted associations. For example, the slogan «Our beer — beer, which does not get fat» was considered unsuccessful, because it reminds of the fact that beer gets fat. Thus, the requirements of relevance and truthfulness are secondary in this case [2, p. 7].
To the sphere of speech etiquette are specifically accepted in this culture, expressions of sympathy, complaints, guilt, grief, etc., for example, in some cultures it is customary to complain of the difficulties and problems, others not accepted. In some cultures, the story of their success is acceptable, in others — not at all. This may also include specific requirements of speech etiquette — what can be the subject of conversation, what is not, and in what situation [3, p. 32].
On the other hand, speech etiquette can be considered from the point of view of language norm. Thus, the idea of correct, cultural, normalized speech includes certain ideas about the norm in the field of speech etiquette. Moreover, violation of norms and rules literary language, especially if it looks as negligence, itself can be seen as violation of speech etiquette [4, p. 214].
Thus, the requirements of speech etiquette form a kind of hierarchy. To some extent, they are an integral part of the active and passive language practice of each native speaker; on the other hand, these requirements are associated with a certain level of speech culture, more or less high. The border between everyday speech practice and the norm in speech etiquette is inevitably mobile. The practical application of speech etiquette is always somewhat different from the normative models, and not only because of the lack of knowledge of the participants of its rules. Deviation from the norm or too meticulous following it may be due to the desire of the speaker to demonstrate his attitude to the interlocutor or to emphasize his vision of the situation [5, p. 177].
It is impossible to name a language culture in which etiquette requirements to speech activity would not be presented. The origins of speech etiquette lie in the ancient period of the history of language. In archaic society, speech etiquette (as well as etiquette in General) has a ritual background. The word is given special importance associated with magical and ritual ideas, the relationship of man and cosmic forces. Therefore, human speech activity, from the point of view of the members of the archaic society, can have a direct impact on people, animals and the world; regulation of this activity is connected, first of all, with the desire to cause certain events or, on the contrary, to avoid them.
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