In the international sea, navigation since the 19th century along with tramp the second form of operation regular and linear are used in the fleet navigation. Ship traffic on the navigable line is carried out by the ship-owner on a regular basis with the movement on the schedule and established route. Linear navigation belongs to public transport, which makes transportation of goods, passengers and baggage according to the address of any citizen or legal entity.
Containerization of shipping linear navigation was divided into two subsectors: “regular and urgent”. On regular lines «roll-on» ships and conventional vessels — cargo liners. These ships are equipped with powerful crane arms and providing regular and obligatory calling according to the schedule to basic ports of the advanced industrial countries. These ships also used for transportation equipment and building constructions, units, etc. which are not located in containers and on trailers, and for service of bilateral trade in piece goods.
“Urgent” container / ro-ro lines work with implementation of the announced schedule with an accuracy of arrival and withdrawal of the vessel to basic ports in the appointed dates of month. The term «urgent» was chosen in Russia in compliance with the main requirement of logistic delivery of goods «precisely in time» (just in time). In the English lexicon of the synonyms, term to «the urgent line» is not present therefore in the English terminology they are characterized as «by container/ro-ro line with strict fulfillment of the schedule, and «container the ro-ro line with strict implementation of the schedule». Vessels of regular lines are processed on the general multi-purpose cargo moorings of ports (cargo multi-pose terminals), urgent — on specialized container. Let us consider at first the transport terminology relating to regular navigation. The schedule of the line usually appears the forthcoming quarter. It can be corrected by the edition in which dates of arrival are specified and departure of vessels, sometimes with change of names. Vessels of tween-deck type (tween deck ships) with several cranes of various loading capacity were the most popular types of ocean liners of regular lines in 60–70 years. On such ocean vessel, it could be loaded for transportation up to 500–600 small consignments. In the «royal mail vessels» (Royal Mail Carriers, Mail Ships) were appropriate places for each goods and freight canvassers, inquisitors, booking agents were engaged in attraction of freights to transportation. Function of the contract of transportation of freight in linear navigation is performed by the linear consignment (Liner Bill of Lading — LB/L). The main contents of such contract is transportation of freight on «linear conditions» according to conditions of linear consignments of BIMKO. Transportation of freight on linear conditions means that the linear company assumes the organization of processing of vessels and freights in ports. According to consignment conditions the vessel makes transportation and unloading of freights at a certain mooring and incurs all expenses on loading of freight from the mooring in a vessel hold, including a trimming, stowage, fastening and separation of freight in a hold, payment of expenses on covering materials, as well as expenses on unloading of freight. A number of shipping charges does not depend on a sort and quantity of freight, for their compensation obligatory payment to the ship-owner of «the minimum freight» is provided.
On the front page of the consignment is marked that freight «was shipped in apparent good order and condition. The consignment at its delivery after acceptance of freight aboard the vessel is called “board B/L or shipped B/L” the onboard consignment. Issue of the consignment and before loading of freight aboard the vessel of «not onboard consignment» received for shipment Bill of Lading is allowed. When freight is required to be delivered to the port of destination with transfer it to other vessel in port for a transit, the direct consignment “Direct Bill of Lading” is made out on all route: if transfer is controlled by the agent of the first carrier, or the Through Bill of Lading if it does the second (subsequent) carrier. The carrying payment for transportation is calculated in the form of a bag of a basic (ocean) tariff and a tariff extra charge for delivery to not basic port out port additional, range additional.
The consignment with a possibility of the choice of the final port of destination received the term “optional B/L” with payment of «an extra charge for the option» to the standard «basic» rate. The group consignments or “groupage B/L” is used for sending combined goods with delivery of combined freight to the agent of the sender or to each recipient of his freight according to the share consignment. The agent of the liner confirming to the consignor booking of freight according to the booking list appoints to days of delivery of freight to the mooring for loading of freight (receiving dates). According to data which are contained in boxing of the consignment notify party, the agent of the vessel coordinates with the consignee an order of delivery of freight in order that to accomplish and bill of lading. The price in the freight market finds the expression in two forms: in the form of freight rates on the tramp tonnage, and in linear navigation — in the freight tariffs, in the form of the rates of tariffs and the additional charges.
Each tariff management contains measurement rules of freights. Distribution of freights on tariff groups and positions for definition of transportable payments is called the tariff nomenclature of freights. The concept of number of cargo weight which after its laying on a hold bottom, on the one hand, creates to the vessel stability and stability and with another — provides profitability of calling concrete port for its loading / unloading, was designated by the term “base cargo”.
The tariff rates can be grouped in class rates or presented in the form of single on commodity rates for each commodity rates or to make a combination of these two systems: from them the widespread system of tariffs are so-called unit tariffs in which against the name of each freight its rate is specified. The size of the tariff rate, which covers the constant operating costs falling on unit of cargo, is called «a basic rate» (base rate). The tariff management contains extra charges to these rates for transportation of the freights transported on special conditions, for example:
‒ an extra charge for ponderousness of freight for transportation of the places exceeding the established general weight basis of a tariff (usually 5 t);
‒ an extra charge for along length of freight (for transportation of the place by length exceeding the established basis usually 12 m or the 40th foot);
‒ for excess of the amount of material compensation by carrier of loss or damage of freight provided by «The Hague rules» with declared valuables which announced by the consignor in the form. In that case, when the vessel follows to the port where it is idle time is for one reason or another, ship owners enter a temporary extra charge for compensation of losses for surcharge of congestion of vessels in port. There are cases of introduction of extra charges for additional expenses on loading/unloading of the special, for example, dangerous freights carried on the consignor/recipient. They are called «port liner term charges». Each conference published the tariff of the Conference. In addition, the lines working at the conference direction, but which were not members of it, they also used this tariff. They called themselves by «independent lines» or «outsiders». The majority of conferences were «closed» for persons interested to enter it. According to the legislation of the USA, all conferences of the American directions were considered as «open». Among outsiders always are such which service is not of a lower quality than service of a conference, and it any derogations from tariff rules and rates of a conference does not assume that sometimes is even made out by the agreement with a conference. Such outsider is called «tolerated outsiders», (Baltic Sea Steamship Company in the sixties on the Australian direction). Other ship-owners outsiders attracted freights by granting discounts from conference tariffs (to 40 %). As means of deduction for themselves cargo owners in the conditions of competition with outsiders of a conference already since the end of the 19th century applied the system of the conclusion with consignors of «loyalty contracts», on whom the last undertook to transport freights only on vessels of this conference, and in exchange received for it from tariffs in this or that form contract rebates.
The most effective system of conference are «the deferred rebates», in the form of return of a part of the paid freight only through the rebate period after check of «loyalty» (period of deferment) of the cargo owner.
Urgent linear navigation expanded transport terminology. Some terms were transferred from lexicon of tramp transportations. So, for example, the term designating indemnification to the ship-owner for idle time of its vessel over lay days — “demurrage”, in urgent linear navigation began to be applied to schedule in a rate to the fee paid by the sender or the receiver of the navigable line for detaining of a container of the ship-owner on the mooring over the determined time (5 days are normal) by beyond the time allowed — with an ascending scale on delay period. For a container delay in a warehouse of the cargo owner “detention charge” is paid (the term is taken from tramp navigation). Consecutive growth of container capacity of the fleet changed approaches to expansion of service for cargo delivery in containers not only to basic ports, but also in optional and in a miss ports.
In urgent linear navigation, the conclusion of long-term contracts for the organization of transportation of goods in containers with providing «volume rate system» is widely applied now. Commodity classification on commodity box rates remains. The structure of the transport operations included in a rate of a carrying payment is specified in the general conditions of application of a rate. At execution of consignments, abbreviations on payment of cargo works are used:
LILO — Liner in/Liner out — are included in the tariff rate terminal expenses (TNS — Terminal Handling Charge or Container Service Charge);
LIFO — Liner in/Free out — are included by TNS / CSC in the port of loading in the tariff rate (unloading at the expense of the buyer);
FILO — Free in/Liner out — is included by TNS / CSC in the port of destination in a rate (loading at the expense of the sender);
FIO — Free in/Free out — is included in a carrying payment only the sea transportation price; loading and unloading of containers at the expense of the sender / receiver.
Modern transport is based on progressive multimodal and intermodal technologies, is focused on ensuring delivery of each freight according to the rational and optimum logistic scheme. Practice shows, that the greatest success is achieved where optimum interaction of all participants of transport intermodal process is provided the companies of transportation complex, terminals, warehouses of consolidation and distribution. Hundreds and even thousands of small and medium-sized serving companies, regional and local representative offices, the correspondent and agency enterprises united by the uniform system of drive and exchange of information and computer communications.