In sports, only that athlete can manifest himself, psychological qualities and properties which meet the requirements of the most sporting activities and specifics selected species. With the growth of sporting achievements, and accordingly the requirements for personality of the athlete increases the role of psychological research. At present The main sections of the work of psychologists in sports, in particular in swimming, have mainly three directions:
- The study of the basic properties of the nervous system and the selection of a complex of characteristic for the sport of their manifestations. Examining the personality of the athlete and determining the most prognostically significant for sports activities characteristics.
- Formation and improvement of relations contributing to higher manifestations of physical and spiritual strength of an athlete in the process of sports training and competition. Studying the properties of the nervous system allows you to understand the essence specific motor manifestations, behavioral acts and individual differences in styles of activity. Sports talent is closely related to psycho-physiological features of the flow of nervous activity.
Having knowledge of the basic properties of the athlete’s personality, one can also accuracy to predict the success of sports activities; having an idea about athlete's mental reactions to training loads, predict it behavior, especially under stress (including in competitions), manage it interaction with teammates (brigade), thereby preventing possible conflict situations — in other words, it is possible to find an adequate personality characteristics of the athlete approach. Formation and improvement favorable for sports training and mental health competitions allows you to gradually and purposefully form the necessary system of relations athlete and improve his sporty character.
This ensures success. Sports activities even in cases where the available natural properties personalities do not fully meet the requirements of the activity itself. In general moral-volitional research carried out in the three described areas, can solve the following main tasks in the pedagogical process:
- Selection and orientation of athletes;
- Regulation of the training process and its management;
- Individualization of the training process;
- Control for mental state and its management;
- Purposeful education of sports character;
- Recommendations for the formation of the team.
Methods of moral and volitional studies of swimmers. In the literature there is a fairly complete and detailed description of research methods as individual properties of the nervous system, as well as whole complex programs that allow widely study the features of the flow of nerve processes.
Let us briefly discuss those research methods by which the properties of higher nervous activity in relation to the specifics of swimming, as well as on methods used in practical activities. Their use includes the use of the following methods: 1. Motor technique for studying the strength of nerve processes indications of reactions of cortical parts of analyzers to stimuli of different intensity proposed V. D. Nebylitsin (1959) and received the name «force gradient». The strength of the nervous system is determined by the reaction time when the intensity of a sound, light or other stimulus. Integral index strength of the nervous system, the so-called criterion HNK2, is determined by the ratio average response time to the minimum intensity of the stimulus to the average response time to maximum stimulus.
- Motor method of studying the strength of the nervous system with multiple repetition of the stimulus. It tests the ability of nerve cells to withstand prolonged concentrated excitation with repeated action of the stimulus.
It is customary to give up to 100 presentations of the stimulus. This determines the criterion performance And the percentage of the average reaction time at 20 the last presentations at the end of the experiment and the average time of reactions to presentations in early experience. This criterion indicates the strength or weakness of the nervous system, since repeated repetition of irritation leads to the development of inhibitory phenomena in the cortex brain, thereby causing an increase in reaction time. Under entered by us the term «resistance to monotony» should be understood the efficiency of the nervous systems by criterion A.3. Methods for studying the lability of the nervous system, studying the rate of occurrence and cessation of the nervous process in terms of critical frequency of light flashes (CWM). This indicator is determined by the time at which the maximum flicker frequency is different as a series repeated stimuli, and going over sensitivities as a fusion of stimuli into solid smooth light. This border is purely individual, and the sooner it appears and stops the process of excitation, the more the performance of the MFC and, therefore, the higher liability. Below is a brief description of the methods used in the study.
Personality of the athlete. For the study of personality are most often used questionnaires and projective tests.
The quizzes usually contain numerous questions or different variations.
Behavior in proposed situations, of which the respondent must choose the answer, corresponding to his personal response. Subsequent culling of unsuccessful questions, correlation of groups of answers and other special statistical operations allow, based on the results of the study to determine valid relatively stable personality traits. Among the questionnaire tests (questionnaires) are most often used personal scale Kompri, personal Eysenck questionnaire, Edward's personal rating scale and Taylor anxiety scale, Spielberger personal and reactive anxiety scale, IPAT anxiety scale, Minnesota Multilateral Personality Test MMPI and Multifactorial Personality the questionnaire Cattella. The basis of the projective tests put the following idea: when a person perceives and describes (verbally or in writing) what he saw in the plot pictures, unfinished sentences, etc., then he to some extent «projects» something of his own proposed situation or incentive. It should be noted that independent the use of projective tests can not solve the problem of high quality research personality. However, for example, the use of plot pictures when working with helps athletes to see important points that are appropriate in the future analyze specifically during observations and using more accurate psychological techniques.
In practical work, a personal 16-factor questionnaire is usually used. Cattell. This test was first published in 1949. It is a system of 16 scales (factors) for a variety of personal characteristics. And although not all 16 personality traits diagnosed by the test are directly related to sports activities nevertheless obtained as a result of testing personal profile gives a multilateral characterization of the test. The test consists of 187 statements and 3 possible answers for each statement. Answers are recorded in the corresponding column of the registration form. Results determined by the imposition of a special key and the subsequent recalculation of the received indicators in the form of so-called «walls», allowing to obtain a quantitative assessment of personal qualities on a 10-point system. Quality (evaluation received results, their interpretation and compilation of individual psychological characteristics require special training and experience of similar work.
Technique. Multilateral personality research using the MMPI test used in our research, is a Russian modified, re-standardized option (FB Berezin et al., 1976). According to its purpose, the test is applied for obtaining a personality profile consisting of 10 scales. An important advantage of this test is the ability to build (based on the test results) averaged.
Profile of any group of subjects. The MMPI test is like no other questionnaire.
Methods, allows you to get the overall picture, the general background of the state of the human psyche.
Based on which, the results of the Cattell test can be interpreted in the most accurate, narrow range, characteristic only for the individual. A complex approach to test personality traits involving the use of several methods (in our case, the methods MMPI and 16-factor questionnaire Cattell) with diagnosis of personal qualities, significantly reduces the likelihood of error and increases the likelihood of obtaining a reliable result.
The use of data of moral-volitional research in the process of training swimmers. As you know, in the process of training and training there is a selection of athletes with the predominance of certain features of mental activity, providing the most adequate adaptation to the specifics of the chosen sport. In swimming Specific conditions for sports activities also impose special requirements, which, by virtue of their natural origin, can serve as a reliable criterion selection and orientation for individual specializations.
Such requirements are: a) a sufficiently high level of strength of nervous processes (a requirement mandatory for a swimmer sprinter), conditional ability to do the job with maximum effort, but relatively short time; b) high resistance to monotony (the requirement imposed first of all to swimmer-stayer). High manifestations of this property contribute to the implementation long-term monotonous work; c) high the lability of the nervous system (a requirement equally applicable to a sprinter, and to the stayer) — a property that is of great importance for the manifestation of specific qualities swimmer.
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