Over the past decade, due to the expansion of professional contacts, a more free exchange of information, the dissemination of scientific and educational literature published abroad, it became possible to enrich the specialists of different countries, and to diversify and systematically communicate at the international level. Knowledge of foreign languages makes it possible to establish educational, cultural and professional contacts. Especially important is the proficiency in English — the language of international communication. Despite the need to know a foreign language by specialists of various fields of activity and understanding its significance, graduates of non-linguistic universities do not possess it well enough .
Life in the modern world implies constant self-improvement and conquest of new peaks. For many of us, self-education becomes an important priority, and knowledge of foreign languages ensures success in career, creativity, personal life, etc. However, often with time enthusiasm for learning is calmed down, the goals seem unattainable, and the language is incredibly complex. In such moments it is important not to give up, but to rethink your goals and opportunities, because the right motivation in learning English plays a primary role for both beginners and those who already have basic knowledge.
Very often motivations to learn English language are various kinds of beliefs. It is much easier to learn when there is a specific goal, when there is something to strive for. In teaching, motivation is very important, as its drawback leads to the fact that a person becomes late or early, bored, uninteresting, and abandons his studies.
And when there are clear beliefs and goals, then this will not happen exactly. Before you begin to study, you need to determine what you need it for. At first glance it may seem that the question is banal, but its importance can not be underestimated in any case. If your motivation for studying foreign is only the fact that it is studied by everyone, then it will hardly help you.
The desire to learn English is directly related to the emotional side of the person. But emotions are for that and emotions to change, so do not rely entirely on them. A decisive role in goal-setting should be given to reason, and your choice must be realized.
The importance of the reason for the study should be directly proportional to the level of motivation for knowing English. It must come from within and match your desires and preferences. Only then will your goal be correct and will bring a significant benefit to the assimilation of speech.
Determine what kind of attitude English has to your goal — indirect or direct. The degree of study depends on this in order to get as close as possible to the intended. This is very important so, you have to figure out what to do for you when teaching — a superficial introduction to the basics or go deep into grammar and linguistics.
Motivation can be positive and negative. Positive motivation is associated with what causes you positive emotions. For example, you wanted to learn English when you presented how successfully you conduct business negotiations with foreign partners and get promoted. Such thoughts lift the mood and cause a smile. You immediately take up textbooks, sign up for courses or look for a good personal English teacher. At the same time you feel the energy in yourself, you understand that you will be able to overcome any difficulties and succeed.
Negative motivation is a desire to learn the language caused by such thoughts: if I do not know English well, I can disgrace myself in negotiations and I will not take the desired position, the chief will be dissatisfied with me. Such thoughts frighten, so you hasten to find a teacher, the best books and learn English. In principle, the same thing happens, only you are repelled from the negative, from your fear of failure. This is less attractive variant of motivation, we advise all the same to think positively. Fear binds and dazzles, prevents us from thinking logically.
From the point of view of science, one of the main reasons for this situation is that until the 1990s there was no universally recognized scientifically sound concept of the subject «foreign language», which would allow to combine all theoretical, practical and organizational issues of teaching students of a higher educational institution to a foreign language. Appeared recently, the development of new concepts of the content of methods of teaching a foreign language in high school is very relevant. They provide for the systematic, integrated and reliant on modern scientific data methods, as well as related sciences, realism in assessments, the lack of dogmatism and stereotypes, the variability and flexibility of the proposed practical steps. Since the effectiveness of mastering a foreign language depends not only on the learner's strategy, but also on the learning strategy, the maximum effect can be achieved in the harmony of these strategies. An important factor helping to achieve this goal is to increase the effectiveness of pedagogical influence of the teacher on students, their communication in classes in conditions of full socio-psychological compatibility. Not seeing the goal in their actions in the classroom, students perceive a foreign language as a certain thing in themselves, until for each speech or language action, for the exercise or task, they do not have a motive.
Recognizing the leading role of motivation in teaching foreign language to students of non-linguistic specialties, the teacher needs to clearly understand the ways and methods of its formation in the conditions of this institution. When considering the problems of motivation and finding ways to form it, it is unacceptable to simplify its understanding. the formation of motivation is not the transfer of ready-made, out-of-the-way motives and goals of teaching to the students' heads. The formation of motives is, first of all, the creation of conditions for the manifestation of inner motivations for learning, their awareness by the students themselves and the further self-development of the motivational-value sphere.
The teacher should imagine the whole arsenal of motivational means, all types and subtypes of motivation, and their reserves. Then it will be possible to accurately correlate the content of the learning process throughout its entire length with the corresponding types of motivation.
The teacher's task is to create conditions that are responsible for maintaining interest in the subject. The teacher needs to build his activities so that the trainees see the speech perspective of the use of linguistic material and in the future strive to achieve linguistic competence [1, P.106–107].
The modern methodology of teaching a foreign language in higher education is undoubtedly under the influence of European tendencies. On the one hand, attention is focused on the formation of intercultural competence of students, on the other hand, the orientation towards integration with other subjects that train communication and the creation of a single economic, cultural, educational space is becoming more and more evident .
The presented characteristics call for the development of new requirements, methods and technologies for the training of future specialists.
In this regard, the teacher needs to focus on new information technologies, such as the Internet, audio and video complexes, multimedia training computer programs. In addition to multimedia technologies, other modern pedagogical technologies such as the method of projects, role games, problem training, etc., which take into account the psychological, age and personal characteristics of students, are used, in the first place, increase the interest of students of non-linguistic specialties in the study of a foreign language, and, consequently, the formation of a positive motivation to study this subject.
So, we can conclude that one of the conditions for the successful formation of motivation to learn a foreign language is the professional competence of the teacher. The teacher must possess modern pedagogical technologies, be ready not only to improve his skills and abilities, but also to constant self-education, including mastering additional specializations, to be mobile, able to navigate quickly changing conditions.
- S. Epifanova, Formation of educational motivation. // Higher education; 2000, No. 3, p.106–107.
- M. V. Lazareva, Development of the student's language identity by means of motivation in a non-linguistic institution.