One of the most important tasks that is being solved today in the course of university and postgraduate training of a foreign language teacher is the development of his desire to learn, update his knowledge, improve skills and competences, one of which is vocational and linguistic. In the modern education system, the requirements for a teacher of a foreign language in schools and universities have significantly increased. Tendencies to strengthen the general humanitarian and philological training of graduates of schools and universities require a new quality of philological and linguistic training of the teacher himself. In the modern rapidly developing society, the need for professionally competent teachers is growing more and more.
The professional competence of the teacher, first of all, is connected with his ability to solve professional problems and problems arising during the educational process.
In the pedagogical dictionary edited by G. M. Kozhaspirova the following definition of the teacher's professional competence is given in: «The teacher's possession of the necessary amount of knowledge, skills and skills that determine the formation of his pedagogical activity, pedagogical communication and the personality of the teacher as the bearer of certain values, ideals and pedagogical consciousness» .
A. K. Markov considered such a work of the teacher, in which pedagogical activity, pedagogical communication is carried out at a sufficiently high level, the personality of the teacher is realized, and good results are achieved in the training and upbringing of the students. Moreover, the competence of the teacher is also determined by the ratio of his professional knowledge and skills, on the one hand, and professional positions, psychological qualities, on the other. A. K. Markov considering professional competence, distinguishes its following types: special, personal, individual, social .
From the point of view of E. F. Zera, competence implies not only a specialist's knowledge and experience, but also an ability to actualize the accumulated knowledge and skills in a moment of life and use them in the process of realizing their professional functions. In this case, the readiness and ability to apply this knowledge is important, depending on the situation .
N. V. Kuzmina defines the concept of «competence» as the ability of a teacher to transform a specialty, the carrier of which he is, into a means of shaping a learner's personality, taking into account the restrictions and prescriptions imposed on the teaching and educational process by the requirements the pedagogical norm in which it is implemented. N. V. Kuzmina distinguishes the following types of competence :
‒ special and professional competence (in the field of the taught discipline);
‒ methodological competence (in the field of ways of forming knowledge, skills and skills of students);
‒ socio-psychological competence (in the field of communication processes);
‒ differential psychological competence (in the field of motives, abilities, orientation of students);
‒ auto-psychological competence or reflection of pedagogical activity (in the field of merits and demerits of one's own activity and personality).
In the modern world, in order to be professionally competent, the teacher must, on the one hand, constantly learn, engage in self-education, and on the other hand, self-actualize in pedagogical activity. In the process of self-realization, the teacher enters into the relationship of appropriation-bestowal. A teacher, self-fulfilling, self-fulfilling, does not just function in society, but also invests himself in his values, as pupils. A teacher in the education system is a self-developing personality, who, with the help of constant work on oneself, improves his professional and personal qualities. The most complete description of the professionally significant qualities of the teacher is given by V. А. Slastenin: «Teacher is not only a profession, the essence of which is to translate knowledge, but a high mission of creating a person who affirms a person in a person».
The professional competence of any teacher should be comprehensive. One can consider the professional competence of a foreign language teacher, which is the unity of such components as key, basic and special competence. The key ones are those competences that are necessary for any professional activity. Basic competencies reflect the specificity of certain professional activities (pedagogical, medical, engineering). Special competence, on the one hand, reflects the specifics of a particular subject area of a professional. On the other hand, it is regarded as the implementation of key and core competencies in the field of the subject. Thus, the competence of the teacher of a foreign language is a special professional competence.
The structure of the special competence of a foreign language teacher consists of the following components:
‒ Communicative competence (professionally oriented knowledge of a foreign language)
‒ Linguistic competence (assuming knowledge of the basic theoretical provisions on language as a social phenomenon, its connection with thinking, the culture of the people, the origin and development of language)
‒ Linguist (knowledge of the culture of the country of the studied language, its history and contemporary problems of development, as well as about life, everyday life, games, popular books, songs, films, and the ability to use this knowledge in selecting the content of instruction)
‒ Linguistic competence (knowledge of age-specific features of development students, the patterns of their physical and mental development).
Currently, determining the professional competence of the teacher, one can not ignore its information competence, which provides the skills of its activity with information contained in educational disciplines and educational fields, as well as in the surrounding world. Using information technology in the professional training of the teacher involves the interaction of the teacher and the trainee in some information environment in which the communication process is conducted in the language of this environment — its means and technologies. The ability to intelligently and effectively use modern computer and communication technologies for the purpose of interpersonal communication and workflow organization a different kind of competence — information and technological. To form an information and technological computer it is necessary to create certain pedagogical conditions that will strengthen the information component of the subjects taught by the linguist-teacher. As a result, he must acquire the following knowledge and skills: to design and apply pedagogical software in his professional and pedagogical activity, to use systems for processing symbolic, graphic and numerical information, remote databases, to enter the Internet and use network services, to compose and send over the network text message, enter electronic conferences, post information there, read and «download» existing information, own negotiation tools in real time The obtained knowledge and skills on the basis of new didactic opportunities provided by modern computer equipment and telecommunications facilities will increase the level of the teacher's competence, his professional skill.
- Zeer, E.F. / Psychology of professions / EEF. — Yekaterinburg: 1999. -259p.
- Kodzhaspirova, G. M. Pedagogical dictionary / G. М. Kodzhaspirova. — Academy: 2001. — 672 p.
- Kuzmina, N. V. Professionalism of the personality of the teacher and the skill of industrial training. Kuzmina. — M.: High school. — 1990. — 198 p.
- Markova, A. K. Psychological analysis of the teacher's professional competence. — 1990. — № 8.7.