Transformations taking place in the professional sphere of activity in a changing and competitive market of intellectual labor make high demands on the continuous educational and professional training of specialists. An important component of the educational process is the assimilation by students of not only ready-made scientific knowledge as such, but also the methodological basis for their production and application in order to develop the capacity for continuous self-education and professional growth. It is obvious that the concept of the priorities of modern education is clearly evolving into the ability to independently obtain necessary information, analyze it, identify problems and look for ways to rationalize them. As part of the educational policy aimed at improving the quality of the educational process, the development of competencies is seen as a predictable result of education.
As we know, an independent work is a type of educational activity performed by the student without direct contact with the teacher or managed by the teacher indirectly through special training materials; an indispensable component of the learning process, which primarily involves the individual work of students in accordance with the installation of a teacher or textbook, a training program. Independent work can be carried out both in out-of-audit time (at home, in the laboratory), and at classroom lectures in written or oral form. Independent work can be individual, pair or collective. Training materials for S. r. are methodically organized in such a way as to compensate for the lack of contact with the teacher and, consequently, to entrust them with the management functions of the independent work. students. The set of tasks should provide the possibility of individual selection and determination of the amount of material necessary to achieve the learning goal. Mastering the methods of an independent work is an indispensable condition for the development of self-education skills. Distinguish the following types of an independent work: laboratory work, an independent work in the classroom, homework, home reading, etc.
When organizing independent work of students in a higher educational institution, first, it is necessary to create conditions for high activity, independence and responsibility of students in the classroom and outside it in the course of all types of educational activities. The correct choice of the forms of organization of independent work, the justified management by the teacher gives an opportunity to take a fresh look at the optimization of the educational process and allows achieving the necessary level of vocational training of the graduate.
The change in the forms and methods of organizing classes is inevitable, caused by the need to use more effective methods that involve intensification of the learning process. Learning acquires an activity character, new forms of students' involvement in the educational process arise, and the role of their independent work increases. The emphasis is on teaching through practical activities, productive work of students in small groups, developing joint project assignments, conducting business games, building individual educational paths in accordance with their interests, using intersubject connections.
Depending on the place and time of the conduct, the nature of the guidance from the teacher and the way to control the results, the independent work of the students is divided into the following types:
‒ Work in the classroom, which is carried out under the direct supervision of the teacher;
‒ Work on assignment of the teacher, performed in off-audit time;
‒ Extracurricular creative work related to the selection of means and methods for the performance of the study task, search and study of additional sources of information.
It should be noted that there are no clear boundaries between the listed types of work, since the types of independent work overlap and are interrelated with each other.
Auditor independent work of students is realized at carrying out of practical employment, seminars, performance of laboratory tasks.
Extracurricular work on the assignment of the teacher implies the students' own knowledge of the methods of independent work and their effective use in the performance of study assignments of various forms.
The task of the teacher is to make the work of students focused, ensuring successful independent achievement of the desired result.
For this type of extracurricular work of students is characterized by a wide variety of forms:
‒ doing homework of a different nature, including individual assignments aimed at developing students' independence and initiative;
‒ preparation and writing abstracts, reports, essays and other written works on the assigned topics, as well as execution of course projects and works;
‒ Preparation for participation in scientific and theoretical conferences, seminars, etc.
An extracurricular work of a creative nature is associated with a number of difficulties. First, this is a lack of preparedness for it both for the majority of students and for teachers, both professionally and psychologically. To develop a positive attitude of students to the out-of-class work of this type, it is necessary to explain the goals of the work at each stage, to control the understanding of these goals, gradually forming in them the ability to independently set the task and choose the goal.
In pedagogical practice, the method of project teaching has found wide application. It is an effective tool for integrating the knowledge of students in various fields in solving the problem posed, makes it possible to apply them in practice, generating new ideas. In the course of the project, students learn to work independently, acquire experience of cognitive activity. Achievement of a positive result ensures the orientation of the project to the needs of the student, the student's personal interest in the project theme, the cooperation of students and the teacher, as well as responsibility for the result of their activities. This method helps to optimize the learning process, develop students' independent work skills.
Of great importance are intensive interactive learning technologies: trainings, cases, game design and other techniques, because they develop basic competencies, form skills necessary for the profession, create prerequisites for professional readiness to use them in practice. A feature of interactive technologies is that they allow you to solve several tasks at the same time: to include in the learning process the motivation of students, to develop the creative abilities of the individual, to form communicative skills and skills, to work in a team.
In order for independent work of students to give positive results, it is necessary to ensure its proper organization. It is important to fulfill a number of conditions: Correct ratio of the amount of work performed during classroom activities and out-of-audit time.
It is about increasing the role of an independent work in the course of classroom activities and increase the activity of students in all areas of independent work during extracurricular time. Methodically correct organization of the student's work in and outside the classroom. Realization of this task requires teachers to develop such methods and forms of work organization that are capable of providing a high level of student independence and improving the quality of their preparation. However, the relationship between the student and the teacher is gradually changing. The student ceases to be only the object of pedagogical influence and becomes a full participant in the educational process, striving to work independently as he moves to higher education, to actively engage in self-education. The fulfillment of tasks of independent work should be taught to think, analyze, take into account conditions, set tasks, solve emerging problems, that is, the process of independent work should gradually turn into creative work.3. Provision of training aids and methodological guidelines for independent work. It is assumed that there are audio, video and computer training programs that allow individualizing the learning process, which should be favorable from a psychological point of view to the atmosphere in the classroom. Such programs include tasks of varying degrees of complexity and are successfully applied to work with students who have different skill levels. The monitoring of the organization and the course of independent work, as well as the encouragement of students for its qualitative implementation. The purpose of this control is to analyze the degree of mastering the educational material offered for self-study, develop professional skills that should stimulate students' cognitive activity. The modern concept of the development of education as the main task of vocational education determines the training of a qualified employee of the appropriate level and profile, competitive in the labor market, competent, responsible, and freely proficient in their profession and focused on the quality of their education in related fields of activity. A graduate of a higher education institution should be able to work effectively in the specialty at the level of world standards, ready for permanent professional growth, social and professional mobility. This task can not be solved without increasing the role of independent work of students over teaching material, strengthening the responsibility of teachers for developing independent work skills, for stimulating the professional growth of students, the upbringing of their creative activity and initiative. Self-dents at the present stage of the development of pedagogy acts as the most important means of increasing the professional and educational activity of future specialists. It shows the student's motivation, purposefulness, independence, self-education and other qualities. The goal of education is to teach a person the ability to learn all his life, making the transition from the principle of «education for life» to the principle of «education through life», ensuring its progressive self-development.
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