The profession of a journalist is one of the oldest in the world, and it would seem that by the 21st century an established idea about it was to take shape. Nevertheless, not only in the circle of practitioners, but also among scholars and teachers of journalism, there is no generally accepted understanding of this profession. Moreover, at the turn of the millennia in Russia, a discussion has begun and continues to this day about the prospects for university journalism education. The absence of a «professional-social contract», a definite agreement creates problems in determining the specifics of journalistic work, journalism as a social institution and spiritual and practical activities — this situation leads to a hidden or obvious conflict between the media and the society (audience), between the media and the training centers of journalists, Between employers and young professionals, graduates of faculties and departments of journalism.
In the domestic theory of journalism, two approaches to the definition of professionalism are considered in parallel. According to the first approach, the basis of the professional activity of journalists is skill and creative abilities, the realization of which is impossible without the manifestation of natural talent and vocation for the profession, according to the second — professionalism is equated with technology, which assumes «mastery of the technology of work, knowledge of the subtleties of the craft and the ability to plan its activities in such a way, That it was useful to other people " . The origins of the first approach should be sought in history, for example, in the nineteenth century, when «with respect to work prevailed» such components as creativity, talent, vocation that were necessary not only for the creative self-development of the individual, but for the progress of the whole society. During this period, a humanistic (ethical) understanding of the professional attitude towards one's activities (creativity, talent, vocation, service to society) was consolidated. In parallel with the ethical understanding, in the era of industrialization, the attitude towards work as a way of making money was established. On the attitude to work, the influence of social factors increased, the main of which was material welfare» Modern Russian journalism, which has undergone radical changes since the mid eighties of the last century, still has not decided on the choice of the leading model of professionalism: «In the professional consciousness and in practice, three alternative functions of the media in the society are realized. This is a managerial function that is condemned by progressive critics, a commercial function that is winning today in the world of mass media, and a socially unifying, humanitarian function» 
Researchers distinguish four groups of factors — sociocultural, political, economic and technological — that have influenced modern ideas about professionalism.
Thus, "...the development of the professionalism of a journalist as a socio-cultural phenomenon was conditioned by: the consumer culture that was formed in society; The phenomenon of «new journalism»; The impact of foreign culture; The split of society associated with the transition of the social system from one state to another. The consequence of all these processes was: the change of professional consciousness, values, priorities of activity in journalism, the development and existence of various professional attitudes (the paradigm of professional activity); Separation of the journalistic community; Changing life strategies — setting for a high standard of living; «Secular» way of life " . Hence — the formation of such «professional manifestations» as the management of information and the audience; pragmatism; Simplified approaches; «Secular» way of life; Stylistic talent; The ability to understand facts and interpret opinions and comments (taking into account the extent of manifestations, specific situations, some of them can be interpreted positively and negatively).
The influence of political factors is manifested in tacit censorship pressure on the part of the authorities, excessive politicization of the media, political engagement of the press, the impact of this or that ideology on the position of a journalist, the transformation of journalism into a «pianist», etc. Hence the growing distrust of the population towards the media, Ideas about journalism only as an instrument of power, service and manipulation, and information — as a symbol of political influence (tendentiousness of information). The modern employer represents the professionalism of a journalist as the ability to survive in a market economy environment (the ability to adapt, to work for wear, success, career growth): «New journalism is characterized by pragmatic goals, and journalists with a commercial vein who are able to lobby interests of interested individuals are in great demand»  (p.17).
Technological development of the journalist's activity presupposes universalism (combining several types of work simultaneously, performing any roles and meeting the diverse needs and interests of the audience), superoperativeness and mobility. At the same time, the activity is deprived of the ethical component, and the journalist ceases to realize his socially significant role in the profession, he is oriented towards the person as a faceless, soulless consumer of information. The journalist turns into a manipulator of public opinion. Thus, the technological factor in its own way affects the formation of professionalism, requiring certain skills from different employees: the possession of computer and information technologies; Mobility, efficiency, activity; The ability to adapt to the language of electronic media; The ability to perform different roles and different types of work simultaneously; Dialogicality (interaction of various forms of media); The collective nature of the profession; Orientation to professional success; The ability to manipulate public opinion; Non-compliance with professional ethics.
Along with this, for any profession, both moral values and values of competence are important, not only «abstract attractive meanings» (situational values), but also material benefits that are important for the individual. Values as spiritual ideas are embedded in a system of concepts formed in the consciousness of the individual in the process of education in the family, school, on the street, and then in the university, in production. Literatures, art, journalism (more broadly — culture) play a huge role in this. The final, basic, «supreme» preferences define professional qualities. Today, the far-sighted editor (employer) assesses first of all the ideological attitudes of a young specialist. Base values can be designated either abstractly (striving for freedom, searching for the meaning of life, etc.), or quite specifically, as they define behavior and actions (honesty, accuracy, etc.). Actually, the majority of researchers are talking about the second group of values related to morality (responsible and the like worker) and competence (logical, robust), while determining the components of professionalism. Knowledge, skills, skills are what national standards of higher professional education should aim at, in which certain types of professional activities are designated: journalistic authorial, journalistic organizing, journalistic editorial, programming and production and technology. We also note the fact that, based on existing models, journalism teachers distinguish the following leading qualities necessary for a future journalist: a high level of professional knowledge in the specialty; Initiative, independence in decision-making; Organizational skills, ability to work with people; Excellent command of the Russian language, competently delivered speech; The desire to improve their knowledge, skills, creativity; Knowledge of the social, economic, political situation and the ability to navigate in it, etc. q
Much in the work of a journalist depends on the unique pattern in which the elements of his personality are formed-a special quality of a person emerging in the socio-cultural environment. To understand a person means to establish how its components interact with each other, conditioned biologically, psychologically, socially. Psycho physiological properties of the author are manifested in different ways in newspaper material, television and radio programs. On the newspaper or magazine page, temperament is reflected in the system of linguistic figurative and expressive means, which give the text an emotionally expressive color. In turn, on the radio, the timbre of voice, intonation, and the rate of speech give us additional information about the speaker. Finally, on television, our perception of the announcer, the commentator, the presenter depends on the first impression of a person, his appearance, aesthetic appeal, expression. Here, a message expressed in word is superimposed on nonverbal information transmitted in the language of facial expressions, gestures, and movements. The significance of all these aspects, as well as the manner of behavior, increases in the course of direct communication of the journalist with the future heroes of his works, with those from whom he receives information, with colleagues. Success in any work, including journalistic work, depends on the abilities — individual psychological characteristics of the individual, which determine the quality level of the product. They make it easy and quick to learn new ways and methods of activity and are not limited only to knowledge, skills and skills.
For a long time, literary abilities were considered to be the main ones for a journalist. Recent sociological surveys confirmed that they are still on the list of basic criteria for journalistic skill. Indeed, the attitude of the audience to the text, and therefore to the newspaper and magazine, on whose pages it appears, or to the program of radio and television, which broadcast it, is largely due to the speech culture of the correspondent. The language and style of the author, the ability to present his thoughts and reveal the position of another, the ability to accurately and clearly tell about the event, convey the fact, evaluate and explain it — the most important components of professionalism. Perfect possession of a word for a journalist is compulsory. Especially today, when a stream of foreign vocabulary invades our speech when it gets littered with slang and invective elements, which forces linguists to talk about the phenomenon of «anti-literacy».
Of course, depending on the specifics of the media, the necessary skills and skills of journalists can vary. So, for television and radio reporter it is important to have a clear diction and an excellent response, especially when working on the air. The interviewer and the talk show host should be able to formulate interesting questions, listen and hear the interlocutor, and if necessary, manipulate it, direct the conversation in the right direction. This directly determines the success of the article or the transmission.
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