The qualities that influence the realization of one’s choice, such as courage, responsibility, rejection of conformism as a factor that influences the dissolution of a person’s personality in the mass, the choice of one's own path towards the individual embodiment of higher human values — all this is an actual problem of today, in Uzbekistan. In the twentieth century, the problem of personality education was raised in existentialism, in particular, in German. In this regard, the views of one of the representatives of existentialism, Karl Jaspers, who built his concept of human education on the basis of the synthesis of exact sciences, medicine and psychiatry, as well as a deep rethinking of the world’s philosophical tradition on the basis of which Karl Jaspers created the pereehontological doctrine are interesting.
Karl Jaspers created an original concept of education, which begins with childhood and lasts a lifetime. Existentialism in general and the existential concept of upbringing, in particular, arise in Karl Jaspers, to a large extent, as a result of reflection on education in one’s own family and over education in the school and university. The well-known German philosopher of the first half of the last century, one of the founders of existentialism Karl Jaspers in his book “The Spiritual Situation of Time” published in 1931, paid special attention to the problem of modern society — the issues of upbringing and education. “Through the actual historical world in which the individual grows up, and in this world through planned upbringing by the parents and the school,... finally, throughout life through everything that he hears and recognizes, it includes what is united in the activity of his being, Becomes his education, as if his second nature” [3, с.116].
Almost a hundred years ago, Jaspers asserted that the world embraced “anxiety”: “Slipping into the abyss, people feel that everything depends on what the coming generation will be like. It is known that education determines the future of human being” [3, с.118]. Moreover, Jaspers emphasized: “In education as a form of life, his arrow is a discipline as an ability to think. And the environment is education as knowledge. His material is contemplation of the images of the past, knowledge of how important views are needed, knowledge of things and knowledge of languages” [3, с.118]. The German existentialist philosopher, speaking of education, notes that the decisive role in it is played not by a specific capacity for languages, to mathematical thinking or realities, but by a readiness for spiritual comprehension.
A special place in the scientific legacy of Karl Jaspers is occupied by the philosophical concept of the «idea of the university», in which the philosopher analyzes the plan for universal university education. It is the University of Jaspers that sees as a special space in which the existentialist concept of upbringing can be realized as a necessary condition for revealing the true existence of man in the space of social structures. The thinker emphasizes that university education is by nature short, and the main role in it is played by a sense of responsibility and freedom.
The University, according to K. Jaspers, is the space where people are united by the vocation to seek and pass on the truth in a scientific way, while contributing to the true formation of man. As a result of the analysis of Jaspers’ work “The Idea of the University”, which was originally published as early as 1923, and then reissued in 1946 and 1961, it was possible to identify the transformational specifics of educational problems in the thinker’s teaching. It is proved that the unifying idea of all these works of different years is that according to the philosopher’s thought, the whole of humanity should become the university community.
It is proved that the unifying idea of all these works of different years is that according to the philosopher's thought, the whole of humanity should become the university community. As K. Jaspers observes, modern society is torn apart by conflicts on national and religious grounds, while each of the conflicting parties presents its cult doctrine as the truth acting as a factor separating people.
K. Jaspers proposes the opposite idea of truth: “Truth is what unites us”. The thinker sees the basis of tolerance in the fact that all attempts of people to say about God, the soul, the world as a whole and freedom are attempts to say something unpredictable, to comprehend the “ciphers of Transcendence”, which are all cultural phenomena.
The fundamental idea is K. Jaspers’ idea that it is the “philosophical faith” as a belief in the transcendent, revealing the deep essential equality of all people, oriented to recognizing oneself in the other, can become the basis for comprehending the truth and by that unifying link that can promote development and education of mankind. As a result, the university is understood by K. Jaspers as a kind of “Temple of the Philosophical Faith”, as a world community of tolerant bearers of world culture, adhering to various ideological and religious teachings.
The thinker, who suffered from the National Socialist regime, develops the concept of education, which can create reliable barriers to totalitarianism. The university is seen as a space that sets life's senses, stipulating the search for new paradigms for the development of educational theory and practice on the basis of democratic and humanistic ideals.
Thus, the “idea of the university” and education in accordance with this idea extends far beyond the student period: it begins with the first introduction to culture in childhood and continues uninterruptedly until old age. The relevance of this understanding of “continuous education” in K. Jaspers is self-evident. It is also necessary to add that the pedagogical task in this area is to teach a person to see himself in the world, to study and evaluate his life, his existence. Indeed, according to existentialism, the ability to perceive oneself and one's existence is the meaning of life: the problems of life creation, the uniqueness of man and the uniqueness of his whole life.
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