Each profession requires certain qualities from a person. A special feature of the teaching profession is that the teacher has to deal with the upbringing and education of the younger generation, with the characters of children, adolescents, young men and girls that are constantly changing in the course of development.
The success of pedagogical activity, as well as of other types of labor, does not depend on the secondary qualities of the individual, but on the main, leading, who betray a certain coloring, style of the actions and actions of the teacher.
We will consider only the main components of authority, or, as we call them, the components of the authority of the teacher. Conventionally, two main components of pedagogical authority can be distinguished. This is a personal and professional component. Let us consider them in more detail.
The personal component of pedagogical authority includes the following qualities of the teacher.
First, it is a love for children and a teaching profession. The decisive importance in each profession is the man's love of his work. If a person does not like his work, if it does not bring him moral satisfaction, then it is not necessary to talk about high labor productivity. The teacher does not only need to love his profession, but also to love children.
It is necessary to distinguish the teacher's love for his profession and his love of children. The attitude of a person to his profession, his love for her depends on socio-historical conditions. It depends on the needs of society in the specialists of those or other professions and on the inclinations and abilities of man.
Love for children is an important condition for the formation of pedagogical authority. Some teachers raise the question: «Why is the pedagogical profession so important to me?" And they answer: «First of all, growing, young people who are able to believe and criticize, love and hate, respect and despise, cherish the noble memory of me Their best educators.» «Every morally healthy person loves children. And to really love children means to love them in sorrow, and in joy, and even when their development deviates from something in some way... To love means to respect, understand, take care of, respect for, and find all this is the greatest pleasure. Live among children, work with them, educate and teach them — what can give more happiness? It is important only to see in every child not a naughty Vanka, but a man, a small, but a real man...» [1. p. 213]
To love children means to make certain demands on them, without this no education and training is possible. Every adult is well aware of how surprisingly subtly the children's attitude to themselves is captured. How painful are they experiencing the slightest manifestation of not trusting their words, how acute is their sense of self-worth. And nothing but resentment, irritation, isolation, even direct hostility, is not in the right to expect that teacher, whose consciousness of superiority does not allow discerning in each of his young wards, above all, a person. What kind of personal authority of such a teacher can be said! And he himself is unlikely to strive to win the authority and love of the children, if for him any value does not represent their opinion of him — because they do not interest him. But if it was only in the indifferent formalists, it's half the trouble. The problem, of course, is not only this.
Sometimes an experienced, qualified teacher is not easy to admit that he is wrong in the face of his own students, to force himself to act as an accountant to them as equals. It is difficult always and in everything to fully meet the requirements that we make for children. Interfere with the age range, and the fear of losing their credibility, and sometimes teacher snobbery, the idea of the role of the teacher as a firm guarantee against any mistakes. But if the teacher managed to overcome these obstacles, overcome himself, pedagogical success will not take long to wait.
Here is a case that V.A Sukhomlinsky recalls.: «In our relationships with children, it became a rule to express freely, cordially, frankly our feelings, satisfaction and dissatisfaction, gratitude and resentment, anger and surprise... [2. p. 56–57] Every day the children brought a flower of chrysanthemum from the greenhouse to the classroom. If there was not a cloud in our relationship, if the children believed me to the end and were ready to follow me wherever I say, pink, red, blue, blue flowers stood on the table in a small vase, depending on the mood of the collective.
With such a teacher, students do not receive deep and solid knowledge, and this is doing them great harm. A good teacher is demanding and at the same time just.
One cannot help but dwell on the question of «favorite» and «unloved» disciples. There is a point of view that the teacher's «pets» in the classroom reduces his authority, the teacher allegedly treats his beloved pupil indulgently, does not impose strict requirements. The teacher cannot refuse to have his favorite pupils in the pavilion. «And if you love, do not forgive anything, demand more». Not for nothing Makarenko A.S Wrote that respect for the personality of the pupil and exacting to him are some of the basic principles in the work of the teacher and educator. [3. p. 192] The whole thing should be that the teacher in the worst student can find positive traits and, relying on them, managed to love him and re-educate. And this is possible only when the teacher will know his students well, know the positive and negative traits of each person's character, with respect to them, be sensitive, responsive, exacting and fair.
Let us now examine in more detail the professional component of pedagogical authority. It includes such qualities as professional knowledge, pedagogical tact, the style of interaction between teacher-educator and students, etc.
First, an authoritative teacher knows his subject. He must have a good command of the technique of each subject. Students love teachers who not only know their subject, but also know how to present it well, to explain it.
The ability of the teacher to see everything, to know everything, by the barely perceptible signs of each student or class as a whole, to judge the mood of the students, about understanding or not understanding them of the teacher's explanation, about their preparedness for the lesson, about the one or the other student Acts is also a professional — the psychological quality of a good teacher.
The teacher — the master of his work has the observation of the scientist and in the understanding of the spiritual experiences of his students — the knowledge of the psychologist.
In the education of teachers of culture of observation, knowledge of general and age psychology, pedagogy, the history of pedagogy and private methods are of great importance. These sciences help to understand the laws of the process of education and upbringing and to make it organized and purposeful.
Knowledge in the field of these sciences will help the teacher to properly assess each act of his students and scientifically based methods to study each child and the children's collective as a whole.
In creative pedagogical activity there are no two absolutely identical cases that require the same measures of pedagogical influence. The same measure in relation to one-student gives a positive effect, in relation to another — negative, and in relation to the third does not give any effect. The best teachers know the individual characteristics of each student, understand the psychology of the child, find a way to the heart of their pupils and in this see the joy of creative pedagogical work.
Professional — psychological qualities of the teacher are brought up by systematic work on themselves and borrowing the best experience from other teachers, since the traits of the character of a good teacher and educator are formed in a pedagogical collective.
The pedagogical profession requires the teacher to continuously improve their knowledge, practical skills and skills. The comprehensive interests and knowledge of the teacher is a prerequisite for his successful school and community work. It is bad if the knowledge and overall development of the teacher does not go beyond the narrow subject specialty. And even worse, if his knowledge fits into the volume of the textbook. Such a teacher does not enjoy authority among students and does not receive moral satisfaction from his work.
When solving educational or educational issues, the teacher cannot use prescriptions, template schemes and mechanically borrowed experience of other teachers. The pedagogical tact is the manifestation of the creative abilities of the teacher in the resolution of teaching and educational matters. Pedagogical tact is impossible without the teacher's knowledge of his subject and pedagogical science, especially age and pedagogical psychology.
The pedagogical tact is the professional, psychological and pedagogical peculiarity of the teacher's behavior in relationships with students, corresponding to the goals and objectives of upbringing, manifested in creative, pedagogically justified ingenuity, resourcefulness, initiative, thoughtful actions, self-control, endurance, sensitivity, and demanding attitude towards children.
Pedagogical tact is the ability to find in each case the most correct pedagogical method. This applies equally to educational and upbringing work. At the lesson, the pedagogical tactic is mainly the result of the teacher's profound knowledge of his subject and the possession of the methodology, knowledge of the age and individual characteristics of the students. In educational work, the pedagogical tact is the result of knowledge of the fundamentals of pedagogy, general and child psychology. This is the ability of teachers to keep themselves with children, the ability to understand the student's condition, his motivations, and interests and find the most effective measure of upbringing in each individual case. [4. p. 113–115].
The pedagogical tact is a measure of the pedagogical expediency and usefulness of the teacher's actions, his words, means and generally the treatment of students. All that goes beyond pedagogical expediency, that in the actions and actions of the teacher contradicts educational tasks, is a violation of pedagogical tact. The pedagogical tact allows the teacher to creatively resolve teaching and educational issues, taking into account the specific situation, the age and individual characteristics of the students.
- Samuylenkov D. F. Mastery, pedagogical tact and authority of the teacher. — Smolensk publishing house. – 1961, – p. 213.
- Sukhomlinsky V. A. Methodology of the upbringing of the collective. — p. 56–57.
- Makarenko A. S. About education. — Moscow: School Press, 2003. – 192 p.
- Stankin M. I. Professional abilities of the teacher. Acmeology of education and training. – M.: 1998. – p. 113–115.