The lesson is the basic organizational form of schooling. It is not only an important organizational, but pedagogical unit of the process of education and upbringing, his morality, as well as the basic principles, methods and tools of instruction are given real concrete definition and find their right solution and are implemented only during the lesson and through it. Each lesson introduces its specific contribution to the solution of problems. The lesson performs a specific function, in which a certain part of the larger blocks of the educational material finds expression.
The lesson as a form of organization of instruction has firmly taken its place in the school as the basic organizational form of instruction. A good lesson is not easy. The art of conducting lessons largely depends on the understanding and fulfillment of the teacher's social and pedagogical requirements, which are determined by the tasks of the school, the laws and principles of instruction. An important condition for conducting the lesson is the competent formulation of the objectives of the lesson and their successful implementation. The teaching of a foreign language pursues the implementation of practical, educational and developmental tasks. A practical or communicative task is «aimed» at forming communicative competence among students, that is, speech activity. General educational tasks are designed to lay the foundations of the philological education of schoolchildren; improve the culture of learning, which manifests itself in specific communicative skills: the ability to start a conversation, support it, show attention, interest, and end the conversation. A considerable role is assigned to educational tasks. The educational value of a foreign language is to educate students about the appraisal and emotional attitude to the world, the positive attitude to a foreign language, to the culture of a people speaking this language. Developing tasks outline the ways of formation and development of the motivational and emotional spheres of the personality of students, value orientations, and readiness for further self-education in a foreign language. [3 — with. 150–151, 161, 90–91], [5 — p.201]
The lesson of a foreign language has its own specifics, since, unlike other subjects, the formation of the communicative competence of students is put forward as the main goal of instruction. At the present time, the global goal of mastering a foreign language is to introduce to a different culture and participate in a dialogue of cultures. This goal is achieved through the formation of the ability for intercultural communication. It is teaching, organized on the basis of assignments of a communicative nature, teaching foreign-language communication, using all the tasks and techniques necessary for this, is a distinctive feature of the lesson of a foreign language. [4 — with. 49–51]
Under the initial stage in secondary school is understood the period of studying a foreign language, allowing lying the foundations of communicative competence, necessary and sufficient for their further development and improvement in the course of studying that subject.
To lay the foundations of communicative competence, it takes a fairly long time, because students need to get acquainted with the studied language as a means of communication from the first steps. This means that they must learn to understand a foreign speech by ear (listening), express their thoughts with the means of the studied language (speaking), read, that is, understand a foreign language read to themselves, and write, that is, learn to use graphics and spelling of a foreign language when performing written assignments aimed at mastering reading and oral speech, or be able to write down their thoughts in writing. Indeed, in order to lay the foundations for each of the listed types of speech activity, it is necessary to accumulate linguistic means that ensure the functioning of each of them at an elementary communicative level that allows them to pass to a qualitatively new stage of their development in the future.
The initial stage is also important because the success in mastering the subject at subsequent stages depends on how the training is going on at this stage. One can not but agree with the English methodologist G. Palmer, who attached great importance to the beginning in the study of a foreign language. So, he wrote: «Take care of the first two stages and the rest will take care of itself». Although in this statement, in addition to the elementary step, intermediate is also mentioned, this does not remove the importance of the first, that is, the initial stage.
In addition, it is at the initial stage that a methodical system is implemented, which is the basis for teaching a foreign language, which, from the first steps, allows the teacher to enter this system and carry out the educational process in accordance with its main provisions. [6 — p. 232]
As you know, the construction of the initial stage can be different in terms of linguistic material, its volume, organization; consistency in the formation and development of oral and written speech; accounting conditions in which the educational process; disclosure of the potential possibilities of the subject in solving educational and developmental tasks facing the school. That is why the initial stage in the study of a foreign language allows us to lay the foundations of communicative competence necessary and sufficient for their further development and improvement in the course of studying the subject. Experiments of recent years have confirmed that foreign language lessons develop children, first of all, their logical thinking, raise their educational and cultural level, and observe the positive influence of learning a foreign language and on knowing one's native language is positive. Duration sensitive, i.e. the most favorable for the beginning of learning a foreign language, a period of psychologists interpreted differently, but most often they converge on a period from 4 to 8 years. Physiologists believe that there are biological clock of the brain, as well as there are in time the stages of development of the glands of internal secretion of the child. A child under the age of 9 is a specialist in the possession of speech. After this period, the brain mechanisms of speech become less flexible and cannot adapt so easily to new conditions.
After 10 years, the child has to overcome many additional obstacles. The child's brain has a specialized ability to assimilate the language, but with age it decreases. The speed and strength of memorizing foreign language material at this age is explained both by the predominance of the mechanisms of long-term memory, and by the presence of imprinting of the material in consciousness, provided that the necessary stimulus and motivation are available. Psychologists define the time for this up to 9 years. Although this age has some limitations, opponents of early learning like to refer to: for example, the child's memory is really smaller than that of an adult, but his language needs are also smaller.
There is every reason to believe that it is language classes that contribute to a gradual increase in the amount of memory. At the present time, it can be considered proven that, for the seeming ease of mastering linguistic material by children, even in a natural environment, complex processes are built, not based on imitation, but on generalization, although internally unconscious. It is also established that a child learns a second language more easily than an adult, only in conditions of vital communication for him, whose source for this age is a teaching game. Interest in the possibility of real inclusion in a new game provides a true internal motivation for learning a foreign language by children. The game activity is leading for a child from 3 to 10 years old and its value is not lost in the primary school.
Educational opportunities of the game in a foreign language were noted by many well-known teachers: L. V. Vygotsky and D. B. Elkonin. [2- P.400] The Russian teacher Ushinsky [7-P. 640], believed that with the correct organization of the educational process, the teaching children to a foreign language should begin with preschool age. Ushinsky believed that the development of the child's speech is based on the development of children's thinking, and in turn, it relies on specific visual images, on clarity. The verbal function is endowed with specific abilities: the first feature is that its activity is limited in time. It is in a certain period that it is necessary to provide the child with the necessary skill in the environment — the ability and ability to learn. After a certain period of time, the child forms speech, a speech mechanism, and the function loses its significance.
Therefore, during the period when the function operates, the child easily enough learns the language. Due to the extinction of the speech function, it becomes impossible to compare the process of learning a foreign language to the process of learning speech. Therefore, it is worth taking advantage of the power of the speech function and not abandoning the child's learning a foreign language in early childhood. In pre-school and junior school age, the innate speech function is still able to act and if it is properly organized the pedagogical process for learning a foreign language, and then they can lengthen the life of the speech function.
All researchers argue that training should be oriented toward the psychophysiological age characteristics of children. It is proved that special classes in a foreign language can be started with children of 4–10 years: up to 4 years — it is meaningless, and after 10 years — it is useless to hope for a positive result. It is best to start learning a foreign language at the age of 5–8 years, when the mother tongue system is well mastered, and a new language has already formed a conscious attitude. It is at this age that there are still few speech stamps, it's easy to rearrange one's thoughts to a new design and there are no big difficulties when coming into contact in a foreign language. And if the methodical system is constructed competently from linguodidactic and psycholinguistic points of view, then success in mastering the proposed limited speech material and creating the necessary prerequisites for the further mastering of a foreign language is provided practically to all children.
Teaching in a foreign language contributes not only to a more stable and free possession of it, but also has a great intellectual, educational and moral potential. Earlier instruction in languages: — stimulates the speech and general development of children and increases the general educational value of primary education as a foundation of general education; — Attaches children to the culture of other peoples, thereby forming a universal consciousness — creates a favorable initial basis for mastering a foreign language, as well as for further education because it prevents the formation of psychological barriers that arise during the initial training of a foreign language at the age of 1–11 years — provides the possibility of earlier completion of the study of the first language and the connection of the second — improves the general skills (the ability to work with books, reference books) forms special educational skills (the ability to work with a bilingual dictionary) [1- p.208].
It should be noted that with the competent construction of the methodological system from the linguistic and psycholinguistic points of view, success in mastering the limited speech material and creating the necessary prerequisites for the further mastery of a foreign language is provided practically to all children. The effect of foreign language lessons in primary school age will certainly positively affect the development of children, a culture of communication, will influence the activation of all mental functions, and expand the general outlook of children.
- Vasilyeva M. M., Conditions for the formation of motivation in the study of a foreign language. — Moscow: Pedagogika 1988. — p.131
- Vygotsky L. S., Imagination and creativity in childhood. Education, 1991 — p.400
- Kolesnikova I. E., Games in the English lesson: a manual for the teacher. [Text] / I. E. Kolesnikova — Minsk: The People's Asvet. — 1990 — p.120
- Lukyanchikova N. V., Learning a foreign language at the initial stage of training. // — Primary school — 2001 — № 11 — with. 49–51
- Passov E. I., A foreign language lesson in high school. — Moscow: Enlightenment, 1988. — p. 201.
- Rogova G. V., Vereshchagina I. N., Methodology of teaching English at the initial stage in general education institutions: A Handbook for Teachers and Students of Pedagogy. Universities. — 3rd ed. — Moscow: Enlightenment, 2000. — p.232.
- Ushinsky K. D., Pedagogical compositions: In 6 vol. T.1 [Text] // Comp. S. F. Egorov. / K. D. Ushinsky — M.: Pedagogika, 1998 — p.640.