Forming the communicative competence at the English lessons | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

Автор:

Рубрика: Педагогика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №16 (150) апрель 2017 г.

Дата публикации: 26.04.2017

Статья просмотрена: 57 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Камалова Д. А. Forming the communicative competence at the English lessons // Молодой ученый. — 2017. — №16. — С. 457-459. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/150/42473/ (дата обращения: 22.07.2018).



Given work shows the individually intelligent and practically realizable (and realized) system of communicative foreign education, as well as 10-year experience of working at UzSWLU. Occurring today’s changes in public relations, facilities of communications (using new information technology) require increasing the communicative competence of schoolchildren, improvements of their philological preparation so priority value has gained the study of English as a means of communication.

Key words: communication, competence, communicative competence, the components of communicative competence, education process, language teaching methods

If in other subjects when selecting content from the arsenal of science they proceed from the realization of general educational and educational tasks, then in a foreign language one must proceed from the practical task of the ability to enter into communication. Therefore, general educational and educational tasks are subordinated to practical ones and are solved in the course of the implementation of the act of communicative competence at one level or another, that is, the ability to enter into intercultural communication. The entire learning process is subject to the main task — the formation of communicative competence.

Communicative competence is willingness and ability to interact, verbal and non-verbal (facial expressions, body language), with other people.

Therefore, the basis of all methods of communicative learning should be the ability to establish links, to find successful forms of communication in any language.

This can be difficult to do even with the study of the any language, when the thoughts and actions of the participants in the communication are clear to each other. Foreign language, in this sense, is harder to study, because not always students understand each other. Therefore, the main principle of communicative-oriented learning is speech activity. But to form and improve communicative competence should be in the aggregate of all its components, namely:

Speech competence — improving communicative skills in four main types of speech activity (speaking, listening, reading and writing);

The ability to plan your speech and non-verbal behavior;

Language competence — systematization of previously studied material;

Development of skills of operating language units for communicative purposes;

Socio-cultural competence — increasing the amount of knowledge about the sociocultural specifics of English-speaking countries;

Compensatory competence — further development of the ability to get out of the situation in the conditions of a deficit of linguistic means when receiving and transmitting foreign information;

Educational and cognitive competence — the development of general and special educational skills, allowing to improve learning activities to master to satisfy with it cognitive interests in other fields of knowledge.

The main methods are: learning methods, the result of which is always the educational products created by the students: an idea, a hypothesis, a text work, a picture, an odd job, a plan of his studies, etc. are called heuristic.

The method of empathy means to «feel» a person into the state of another object, «instill» students into the studied objects of the surrounding world, an attempt to feel and know it from within.

For example, get used to the essence of wood, cats, clouds and other educational subjects. At the moment of the experience, the student asks questions to the object-self, trying to perceive, understand, and see the responses at the sensory level. The thoughts, feelings, sensations that are born at the same time are the educational product of the student, which can then be expressed in an oral, written, and pictorial form.

Example:

‒ Teacher: Imagine yourself that you are 'Storm'. How can you describe yourself, what are your feelings? Name your adjectives, verbs, your favorite season, places you occur, your weather.

‒ Student: — I am a Storm. I am dangerous, violent, strong, cruel, noisy and destructive. I destroy houses; carry away cars and telephone boxes. I occur in the springs, throughout the world, but mostly in the United States, especially in the central states. I happen in the afternoon or in the early evening. Large clouds appear in the sky. They become darker and darker. The sounds of thunder, bright flashes of lighting! I form a funnel and begin to twist. My funnel touches the ground; it picks up everything it can.

The «Mind-Map» method is a simple technology for recording thoughts, ideas, and conversations. The recording is quick, associative. The theme is in the center. First there is a word, an idea, a thought. There is a flow of ideas, their number is unlimited, they all are fixed, and we start to write them from the top left and end right below.

The method is an individual product of one person or one group. Expresses individual opportunities, creates space for manifestation of creative abilities.

The possibilities of using «Mind-Map»

When ordering, repeating the material; When working with text; If you repeat at the beginning of the lesson; When you introduce the topic; When collecting the necessary language material; At the control.

The main ways of development of all components of communicative competence:

Training is carried out through the following types: communication games (communicative games);

1. Communication games (communicative games)

‒ picture gap (the trainees have almost identical pictures, some images are different, and the differences need to be detected with the help of questions, without seeing the partner's picture, — matching tasks);

‒ ext gap (students have similar texts or fragments of the same text of one student, absent in the text of another student, and the lack of information needs to be filled-jig-saw readin

‒ knowledge gap (one student has information that the other does not have, and it needs to be completed with complete-the-table tasks);

‒ belief gap (trainees have different beliefs, but need to work out a common opinion);

‒ Reasoning gap (schoolchildren have different proofs, which are important to gather together and compare).

2. Communicative stimulation in role-plays and problem-solving:

‒ role-playing games (assumes a certain number of characters, as well as a game problem situation in which the participants of the game act.) Each participant during the game organizes his behavior depending on the behavior of the partners and the outcome of the game should be the resolution of the conflict.)

‒ Disputes (is one of the forms of dispute as a verbal match, this is an exchange of views on an object with the aim of achieving a unity of view The final decision of this issue is developed in the course of the discussion. For successful conduct of its discussion, participants should have knowledge about the subject of the discussion, have their own opinion on this issue)

‒ Round tables (presents an exchange of views on any issue, a problem of interest to participants in communication. «Participating in the round table, the learner speaks out on his own behalf. The problems discussed at the «round table» can be very diverse: social, regional, moral and ethical. Participation in the round table requires students to have a fairly high level of language proficiency and certain knowledge of the problem.)

‒ Sketches (this is a short scene, played out for a given problem situation, indicating the actors, their social status, role behavior.) Sketches can be played out Small scenes related to social and everyday spheres on the topics «Nutrition», «Shopping», «City and its sights»)

3. Socialization (free communication).

‒ line-up (students try to line up as soon as possible in accordance with the proposed feature);

‒ strip-story (each student gets his own phrase and tries to quickly take the corresponding place in the «story»);

‒ smile (students approach each other and exchange a replica with an obligatory smile);

‒ merry-go-round (students form an outer and inner circle and, moving around in a circle, exchange replicas);

‒ contact (participants approach each other and start a conversation);

‒ kind words (students say any pleasant words to the interlocutor);

‒ reflection (participants try to imagine what other schoolchildren think of them);

‒ listening (students listen attentively to the partner, nodding in agreement and agreeing with him).

In modern conditions it is naive to believe that full communication is possible only on the basis of the ability to operate with linguistic material. For a successful communication process, it is necessary to have the total amount of knowledge that students receive by studying other subjects in the general education cycle. The foreign language, literature, history, geography, music, biology, physics are subjects whose content is reflected in one way or another in the subject of the program on a foreign language. The knowledge of regional studies and the history of the language received by students in the lessons of a foreign language are applied, in turn, in the lessons of geography, history, literature. At present, education faces the difficult task of preparing a growing person for life in a multinational and linguistic environment, when necessary Not only the development of their national language, but also the understanding of the uniqueness of other languages. Education of young people in the spirit of respect for all peoples, eradicating negative perceptions of people of other nationalities is the task that requires appropriate training of teachers working in the field of education and upbringing of children. At the present stage of society development, it has long become clear that the single concept of «education» as Process of imparting mental and spiritual appearance to a growing person, we can not limit ourselves. The whole process of the formation and development of the personality, its acceptance of moral norms and the mastery of communication is impossible without education. Education communicative is the same long process, as well as the upbringing of other human qualities. In the process of familiarizing with different languages, in the process of acquiring communicative competence, both the teacher and the student go through several stages, the relationship between which is quite dialectical and complex. To such steps, in particular, we can include tolerance, understanding and acceptance of a foreign language, as well as ways of behavior in problem communicative situations, knowledge of grammar and vocabulary. The essence of competence is determined by the conformity of the requirements, the established criteria and standards in the relevant fields of activity. Competence in language education is often associated with the notion of «communicative competence», which only partially reveals its essence. The role of communication in education the development environment of each individual person is very great. The formation of an individual develops and grows during the interaction of the individual with the languages of the community.

The more diverse and broader the relationship of a person with a linguistic culture, the richer the prospects for her individual education. And the main role in the organization of these ties for a long time belonged to schools, universities. Unlike a separate skill or skill that you can train each in it, the development of competence requires the inclusion of the whole complex of abilities and skills at once. The theoretically permissible mastery of students by the totality of a huge the palette of languages does not make them subjects of communication, despite the outward signs of education. Language is transmitted not in the process of passive mastery of finished information, but in personal communication, that is, in communicating with the person as the bearer of a particular language. Communicative competence is a characteristic of a person's personality, his ability, which manifests itself in his behavior, activities, allowing him to resolve life situations (including communicative ones).

References:

  1. Antonova, E. S. Methodology of teaching Russian language: communicative and activity approach: a textbook / E. S. Antonova. — Moscow: Knorus, 2007. — 460p.
  2. Gal'skova, ND, Gez, N. I. The theory of teaching foreign languages. Linguodidactics and methodology: Textbook. Allowance for stud. Lingual. Un-tov and fact. In. Yaz. Supreme. Ped. Training. Institutions / N. D. Gal'skova, N. I. Hez. — 3rd ed., Sr. — Moscow: Publishing Center «Academy», 2006. — 336 p.
  3. Maslyko, E. A. Communicative system-activity approach to teaching foreign languages / Belarus. — 2002. — No. 1. — P. 4–6.


Ключевые слова

коммуникативная компетентность, компетентность, связь, Методы преподавания языка, Компоненты коммуникативной компетенции, Учебного процесса

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