The most important moment in the study of English is a way of presenting information to the student, and this is called teaching methods. Since the first lessons of the English language a lot of time has passed. The methodology of teaching English in educational institutions has undergone sufficient changes and today has acquired several different directions.
To date, there are many methods, but none of them is the best in all contexts, and none of them, by its nature, does not exceed others. In addition, it is impossible to apply the same methodology to all students who have different goals, conditions, and training needs. It is necessary to apply the most appropriate method for performing specific tasks of the student.
Each teaching method is based on a certain vision of understanding the language or learning process, often using special techniques and materials that are used in a given sequence.
All methods of teaching English in educational institutions can be conditionally classified depending on whether the mother tongue is used in the teaching process and who is the centre of the learning process. The second model is determined by two approaches, when the centre of the learning process is either a student or a teacher. The first approach is focused on the needs of the listener, in this case the initiative is transferred to the student, and the teacher acts as a guide. Thus, it is possible to achieve the most effective work of each student individually and in a group.
The second approach is based on a huge number of techniques and techniques that many teachers use in a variety of combinations, creating an incredibly exciting educational process. The main figure here is the teacher, it is the person who gives the assignment to the students and evaluates the completed task. The teacher himself decides how and in what form to conduct the occupation, who to ask, and who to give the assignment for the house. The method is focused on obtaining maximum results in individual work.
One of these modern methods is the case study method. The homeland of the case study method is the United States of America, namely the Harvard Business School. In 1910, the dean of the Harvard Business School advised teachers to introduce in the educational process in addition to traditional classes — lectures and workshops — additional, held in the form of discussions with students. This method is very popular in the west, but for the educational institutions in Uzbekistan, the case method is a fairly new technology. The case method is a method of active learning based on real situations. In translation from English, case — случай, and case study — это обучающий случай. The essence of the case-study method is the use in the organization of the learning process of specific learning situations, descriptions of certain conditions from the life of the organization, a group of people or individuals who orient students on the formulation of the problem and search for options for its solution, followed by analysis in class.
The following types of cases are distinguished:
‒ practical cases. These cases as real as possible should reflect the introduced situation or the case;
‒ training cases. Their main task is training;
‒ research cases that focus on the inclusion of the student in research activities.
In fact, each case carries a learning function, only the degree of expression of all shades of this function in different cases is different.
Undoubtedly, the application of the case method has some advantages and risks. First, the case method makes it possible to optimally combine theory and practice, develop skills of working with a variety of sources of information. The students do not receive ready-made knowledge, but learn how to extract them independently, the decisions made in the life situation are remembered more quickly than the memorization of the rules. Secondly, the process of solving the problem stated in the case is a creative process of cognition, which implies the collective nature of cognitive activity. Consequently, students learn to observe the rules of communication: work in groups, listen to interlocutors, argue their point of view, having constructed logical schemes for solving a problem that has an ambiguous solution. At the lesson, the students will not be bored, but will think, analyse, develop the skills of conducting the discussion. Finally, even weak students can participate in the discussion of questions, since there are no unambiguous answers that need to be learned. They themselves will be able to offer answers.
However, like any other method, this method has its own difficulties in using. First of all, it takes a lot of time to prepare the case carefully for the lesson. The teacher should think over the form of presentation of the case and plan the activities of children, combining individual and group forms of work. A difficult moment for a teacher is assessment, because it is necessary to evaluate the work of each participant, his activity and originality, at the same time, it is necessary to objectively evaluate his knowledge. It should be noted that the traditional five-point system of evaluation of results does not allow to evaluate the activity of students. A hundred-point system of knowledge assessment is more flexible and allows more objective determination of the level of training of students. Therefore, when evaluating each participant, we will try to combine a five-point and a hundred-point system. To get the final "5" students need to score 100–85 points, to get "4" — 84–70 points, and "3" the student gets, if he recruits less than 70 points. Since everyone will be involved in the discussion, even students who have low communication skills, do not think I will not have to use the case method.
The case method can be successfully used in English classes, since this method is complex and contains all types of speech activity: reading, speaking, writing, listening. Students have a real opportunity to communicate in a foreign language in the process of interacting with other group members and the teacher. The success of the case method depends on three main components: the quality of the case, the preparedness of the students and the willingness of the teacher himself to organize the case and conduct the discussion.
The use of this method in teaching a foreign language is effective for students of non-linguistic universities. This is explained by the fact that «the case method relating to interactive learning increases the motivation and involvement of students in solving the problems discussed, which gives an emotional impetus to the subsequent search activity». It also «shapes the ability of students to self-development and self-education».
It is the use of case technology in foreign language lessons aimed at «realizing this competence, as well as developing both language and non-linguistic competencies of students».
The application of the case method in English lessons in a non-linguistic university helps to form students' own opinions on a particular topic. Subject can be any topic in English. The advantage of using this technology in the English lesson is that students analyse information, make assumptions and formulate conclusions in a foreign language. Consequently, this type of work helps students to activate and apply knowledge of the English language.
The English lesson on the basis of case-technology can be built in the following direction: The first group of exercises — introductory exercises (Starting up), whose goal is to teach vocabulary, as well as speaking skills. The second group of exercises — «Listening». The exercises in this section are aimed at developing listening and writing skills, as well as mastering new vocabulary. The third group of exercises — «Reading», is aimed at developing the skills of reading and understanding the text in English and developing new lexical units on the topic of the lesson. The fourth group of exercises — the repetition of grammar (Language Review). The fifth group of exercises is the «Case Study», which describes the topic raised at the beginning of the lesson.
Case-method is akin to the method of learning game technology. Game technology assumes the active participation of the student in the educational process at all its stages, including the current and partially final control. The active interaction of students in the «working / creative groups», with the aim of achieving a joint result under the guidance of the teacher, «forms the necessary professional competencies, develops professionally necessary skills and models, and models future professional situations»
A case is a specific role system. The high concentration of roles in the case leads to the transformation of the case method into a gaming method of teaching, combining a game with a subtle technology of intellectual development and a total control system.
Variants of a combination of the case-method and game technology are possible. The first option, when the game is included in the description of the case, the solution of which involves pre-playing the situation.
The second option, when the situation is included in the game, in the process of its playing, it becomes necessary to create a case-method. Integration of these two methods positively influences the educational process, gives it a new creative potential.
So, in the context of studying the topic «Money» it is possible to hold the game «Sponsor». Students choose a «sponsor», and two «experts». The rest of the students belong to the support group and collect information about people in need of material assistance for the sponsor and experts.
Game: «Interview» can be represented as follows. «Employer» selects job seekers resumes. All summaries are on his desk. Students are divided into three groups and each group needs to come up with a name. Each group chooses one student, who actually will be an «employer». Students are given a summary kit. «Employer» for 5 minutes you need to list the criteria for selecting candidates on the sheet. The «employer» and the group on these criteria need to select the candidates' resumes. Further, in a joint discussion, each group should work out a common solution, which summaries and why it should be selected for the director's report. Further, the student — «employer» protects the decision of his group and provides this information in a foreign language and information media.
Overall, the main purpose of the case-study method is to analyse the situation in a concrete state of affairs and develop a practical solution. In the end, all the proposed options are evaluated, and the best one is chosen.
The only difficulty that arises when applying this method is to assess the contribution of each participant in the process of discussion and the search for a solution. It is necessary to observe objectivity, presentation of unified requirements and argumentation of assessments. The role of the teacher is very important — he must seek the activity of all participants, listen to all the arguments for and against, control the process in general, but do not influence the content.
Thus, the use of the case method in the study of a foreign language in a non-linguistic university increases the level of knowledge of the foreign language as a whole, develops the ability to conduct a discussion, which promotes the development of speech without reliance on the finished text, improves the skills of professional reading in a foreign language and the processing of information and allows to fully resolve Individual and group independent work of students. Thanks to the application of the case method in the educational process, students have an excellent opportunity to creatively apply the past language material based on their professional knowledge and allows them to adapt to real and potentially possible situations. Being an interactive method of learning, it captures a positive attitude on the part of students who see it as an opportunity to show initiative, independence in mastering theoretical positions and mastering practical skills. It is also important that the analysis of situations affects the professionalization of students rather strongly, promotes their maturation, and shapes interest and positive motivation for learning.
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