Mastering a letter can provide students with the opportunity to use it as a means of learning the language. Teaching letter technique breaks down into learning the graphics and spelling. The first task is solved basically at the younger stage of training and requires only exercises in perfection at the middle and senior levels. Work on mastering the spelling continues during the entire period of accumulation of an active lexical stock.
– Graphics — the totality of all the means of this writing (for the English language graphic Latin — printed and handwritten: upper and lower case letters).
– Spelling is a system of rules for the use of written signs when writing specific words.
– Written speech — letter, abstract, abstract, composition, presentation, etc.
The training of graphics is connected with the solution of two tasks: mastering the sound and letter relations and establishing connections between the various functional variants of each letter. An important role in the training of sound and letter symbols is played by sound-alphabetic and syllabic analysis. In the methodology, the following scheme is proposed for such an analysis, conducted with the purpose of teaching the technique of writing: a whole word in its sound — sound syllables — sounds — the corresponding graphemes — graphic syllables — the whole word on the letter. In practical work, the teacher uses its individual elements, depending on the difficulties that arise before the students, and the goal that he sets himself.
Students experience difficulties in mastering grapheme-phoneme correspondences in English, in which there are no simple correspondences between graphemes and phonemes. One and the same phoneme can be expressed in different letters, letter combinations, and the same letter can transmit different phonemes.
To overcome difficulties, it is necessary to purposefully train schoolchildren in grapheme-phonemic correspondences. To form skills in correctly drawing the letters of the English alphabet and translating sounds and combinations into corresponding letters, one should consider the following:
1) the similarity of the letters of the Uzbek and English alphabets;
2) interfering influence of the native language;
3) the novelty of the letters of the English language;
4) the variability of the correspondence when translating English sounds into letters.
In order to master the writing of letters, so-called elementary letter is used, that is, the writing of individual letters, letter combinations, or even individual elements of letters. The latter is required in those cases where letters are studied with complex writing elements (for example, G or W).
The greatest difficulty in mastering the technique of writing is the teaching of spelling. This complexity is largely because the historical principle of spelling plays a significant role in the English language. This causes great differences between sound and graphic images, and this difference in some cases is difficult to explain, taking into account the elementary linguistic preparation of students.
One of the difficulties in spelling English is the discrepancy that exists between the sound of a word and the possible ways of its graphic representation. A vivid example of such a discrepancy is, for example, the words «right» and «write».
The difficulties of English spelling are determined by the fact that the alphanumeric and sound-letter correspondences in the same words may not coincide.
When teaching students should take into account the listed difficulties of spelling. Their overcoming to some extent helps reliance on certain principles: phonetic, morphological and traditional.
The phonetic principle of writing is reduced to the rule: «Write as you say»;
The morphological principle of writing is that one or another morpheme on writing in related forms or words always retains a single graphic image.
The main principle of English spelling is the historical or traditional principle. Historical writings include those that cannot be explained either phonetically or morphologically — they reflect the missing norms of pronunciation; various spelling techniques used in the past, or are in general accidental writings, entrenched tradition
Methods of work on learning to write:
- For training graphics — exercises on the analysis of the alphabet (look at ABC and tell me what letters you already know how to write?)
- For teaching spelling: — Pronunciation of words (spell the word);
– Establishment of associations.
– Learning writing includes:
– students get acquainted with the writing of letters;
– Training in writing letters;
– mastering the spelling of words that the students have learned verbally and read;
– writing proposals that contain the learned linguistic phenomena.
All exercises in written speech, as well as in oral, can be divided into two large groups: preparatory and speech. Preparatory exercises are designed for mastering the linguistic material in graphic design and for teaching, certain operations related to the written expression of thoughts. First, various exercises with models (transformation of models, extension of them, etc.) should be included in the preparatory exercises. Of particular importance are exercises that involve the dissemination of an existing statement. The significance of these exercises is that they form a mechanism for anticipation or probabilistic forecasting, which plays an important role in mastering written speech.
The second type of preparatory exercises provides the ability to logically and consistently, in their own words to convey this or that information. It's rephrasing, shortening the text. The latter can mean the selection of key proposals and the reduction within them. To train the logical presentation of thoughts use the drawing up of various kinds of plans: a plan in the form of questions, a plan in the form of nominative proposals.
The system of speech exercises opens with an exercise in the reproduction from memory of a group of related sentences. Such an exercise proceeds close to the self-dictator. As soon as students master the ability to express thoughts in their own words, it becomes possible to use the following types of exercises: presentation, story, description, writing, writing a letter. The presentation requires some preparatory work in the classroom under the guidance of the teacher. Together with the students should select from the heard or read the necessary models, dismember the text on the semantic passages, identify the main content. After such preparatory work in the class, the presentation can become a homework.
At the intermediate stage of training, an exercise such as a story can be used. In this case, preliminary work in the class is also necessary. At this stage, descriptions are used. Typically, the descriptions are based on drawings. In order to accustom more creatively to express their thoughts, it is advisable to recommend to students to think out details or to invent the beginning, or the end of the events depicted in the picture.
Works in the strict sense of the word are a discussion of any thesis. Conventionally, the writings can be called a story or description containing elements of reasoning. So, for example, when giving a description of a text or a picture, the student gives arguments to why he liked or did not like the text, the picture, etc.
The most common exercise in writing is writing a household letter. The available stock of linguistic material and the interests of students determine subjects of letters. «Experience shows that before the beginning of correspondence it is necessary to conduct classes on drawing up collective letters. First, to write a letter, «you must know certain formulas of greeting, gratitude, and treatment». It is important to learn how to write letters: the location of the date, address on the converter.
In high school, some methodologists recommend using this kind of exercises in written speech, like annotation. This exercise consists in the fact that the students, by indicating the basic data about the source from which they read the text, transmit the summary of the read. For annotation, it is advisable to use popular science texts. This work is possible only when students have mastered the presentation, narrative and description. While teaching writing the students should be required to connect imagination, and teach how to use connecting structures.
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