The contradictory nature of mental development is expressed in the desire to earn the recognition of an adult, which is a powerful stimulus of formation of many positive qualities, and can provoke children's lie under certain conditions.
Key words: moral development, education of the individual, ignorance of a child, egocentric behavior, mental ontogenetic development, identification, shame
Moral development is one of the important aspects of personality. The study of moral development is impossible without the play of phenomena of moral behavior in a controlled environment. Specially created a situation in which children are to be honest or dishonest (to fake the result or leave it unchanged, to tell the truth or lie; assign the wrong things or give them to their destination, and so on). Each of the alternative actions prompted by certain motives system. Act contrary to the immediate interests of the child is motivated by one or more motives that make it profitable, enjoyable and comfortable, and are sometimes called to be selfish. Compliance with rules in these circumstances impelled by other motives.
For the practice of education is necessary to answer the question why children dominated this or that type of motivation. The relationship between motivation and level of intelligence, conditions of family education, emotional stability, socio-economic status, participation in children's organizations and other characteristics play a major role in the education of the individual. Among the factors that affect the moral motivation can be called a belief in the correctness of rules and the need to follow them.
Compliance is linked with unpleasant feelings caused by anti-moral punishment for the act and related circumstances. However, penalties for violation of the rules may give rise to aggression and negative attitude towards the latter. «The tactics of the deprivation of love», which is expressed in the emphatic disregard for the child after the offense, refusal to communicate with him, the statements such as «Mom does not like such a deceitful child» does not lead to the choice of moral behavior. Not confirmed, and the possibility of the formation of the moral behavior of a child through observation of behavior others. Of the three children of the exhibits on display behaviors — compliance with the rules of its violation, followed by punishment, unpunished violation — only the last type of influence on their own actions.
The expression of parental displeasure over violations of fundamentally different from the various forms of punishment (deprivation of entertainment and sweets, physical punishment, termination of communication, etc.) If you punish the child's attention is focused on the adverse effects of the action for himself. If adults expressing their displeasure and paying attention to the child's misbehavior, point to the consequences for others they cause a child's empathy with these people and show that the cause of evil were his actions. Thus, the child opens the negative consequences of the act for others. The basis of experience is the awareness of guilt, which is updated in a similar situation and is the basis for the formation of moral judgments.
The evolution of moral consciousness of the child depends on cognitive development, as the child goes from egocentric attitude towards others to develop a flexible position when in his judgment it starts to rely on its own criteria. L. Kohlberg, described three types of experiences that a person experiences in violation of moral norms: 1) fear about the possible consequences and the expectation of punishment; 2) the desire to compensate for the damage and restore the original position; 3) conviction himself or herself and the experience of guilt. According to L. Kohlberg, only the third type of experience indicate proper moral development. [1, 61]
Man should be considered as a subject in connection with its activities His mental ontogenetic development is closely linked with the mastery of human activity crystallized in cultural objects. The occurrence of primary ethical ideas is a process of assimilation patterns of behavior associated with their assessment on the part of adults. As an example can serve peers, older children or adults are familiar, collective image of people with certain moral qualities. Following samples is one of the mechanisms of internalization of external social requirements, including the requirements of morality.
It is important to an understanding of who serves as a model in different age stages. With ages, significantly increases the role of peer as an example to follow. This is easy comparing themselves with peers, understanding that to achieve their peers and are available to the subject, the possibility of obtaining specific advice from a friend, and even help the implementation of joint actions to achieve the goals for self-education. This idea was built a volunteer movement, which in the case of difficulties, the children did not seek help to adults and to their peers.
As an indicator of moral development level of the child's behavior in favor of alternative ethical situation. The contradictory nature of mental development is expressed in the desire to earn the recognition of an adult, which is a powerful stimulus of formation of many positive qualities, and can provoke children's lie under certain conditions.
Summing up the consideration of the moral development of the child, said to be the mechanisms by which there is internalization of norms and rules of conduct.
Imitation — the conscious desire of the child to copy a certain pattern of behavior (whether it is a significant adult or peer, teacher or hero of the film). It is important that any emotionally meaningful relationships exists between them.
Identification — the assimilation of other behaviors, attitudes, values as their own.
Shame — the mechanism of the prohibition of certain behavior. There is in the knowledge that there may be sanctions, penalties for violations of generally accepted norms of behavior.
Guilt — the mechanism underlying the deep inner experience inappropriate behavior to their own ideas of what should be, what is right, taken by the personality.
Also important is the accumulation of personal experience, and a critical processing of the content of culture.
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