The analysis of using epithets in English and Uzbek poetry
Шукурова З. Ф. The analysis of using epithets in English and Uzbek poetry // Молодой ученый. 2017. №10. С. 488-490.
After the independence of Uzbekistan, it became challenge problem to learn English and Uzbek languages by comparing them and finding the similarities and differences of these languages. First President of Uzbekistan I. A. Karimov paid more attention to it and gave lots of ideas in order to solve this problem. It will be given an example of his speech: “These days, there are being paid a lot of attention to learn and to teach foreign languages in our country.”
Nowadays, learning foreign languages comparing to Uzbek languages are more efficient. Because, it would be somehow unclear to understand conceptions of foreign languages without comparing. For instance, degree of comparison, from this it means learning the comparative and the superlative degrees are becoming more essential.
The most famous term of stylistics and poetry is epithet. Epithet is derived from Greek language and it means “the adjective added to a phrase used instead of it, usually in poetry and stylistics.” In other words, it assists to describe or to depict smith in a beautiful and movable way. Epithet gives more color, style and beauty to the thing, which is being described. That’s why epithet is one of the most important and gist term of stylistic conceptions.
Epithet was being learned from ancient centuries and there were collected a lotof researches and information about it. This word firstly was used by Aristotle’s and Quintilian’s works. Aristotle mentioned that epithet is something like metaphor. If someone uses a metaphor, they use a word in a way that is slightly different from its basic meaning. Metaphors are common in written than spoken English and often have the effect of sounding quite poetic.
To trails, in the strict sense of this term, only epithets belong to which the words used in figurative meaning (golden autumn, tear-stained windows) fulfill the function, and the difference from the exact epithets expressed by words used in direct meaning (red viburnum, hot midday). Epithets are often the colorful definitions expressed by adjectives (The watchman struck a clock on the bell tower — twelve strokes, and although the coast was far away, this ring flew up to us, passed the steamer and went across the water to the transparent twilight where the moon hung. I know: how to name the weary light of the white night? Mysterious? Or magical? These nights always seem to me an excessive generosity of nature — how much they have pale air and a transparent luster of foil and silver.-- Paust.).
Adjectives-epithets in substantivization can serve as a subject, complement, treatment (Sweethearted, kind, old, tender! With thoughts sad you do not make friends.) — Ес.).
Most epithets characterize objects, but there are also those that describe actions in a figurative way. In this case, if the action is indicated by a verbal noun, the epithet is expressed by an adjective (heavy cloud movement, sleep noise of rain), but if the action is called a verb, then the adjective can be an adverb that acts as a circumstance (Leaves were stretched out in the wind. — Paust.). As epithets can also be used nouns, playing the role of applications, predicates, giving a figurative characteristic of the subject (Poet — the echo of the world, and not only — the nurse of his soul.-- MG).
Quintilian divides epithet into two: epithet, which is used by poets and epithet, which is used by orators. He enlightened that poets use epithet often and it is used slightly different from the described word’s basic meaning, but in orator’s speech epithet should be in the same meaning of that word, without any spare word. Firstly, A. A. Potebnya and his followers D. N. Ovsyaniko-Kulikovskiy, A. A. Zelenetskiy did much efforts to develop epithet. V. G. Gak, Gumboldt, I. V. Arnold, I. R. Galperin, Panasenko and from Russian poets A. N. Veselovskiy, V. M. Jirmunskiyadded their share to the development of epithet.
So, epithet is considered as a stylistic device which emphasizes some features, quality of thing,person, phenomenon or idea. Its function is to reveal the evaluating subjective attitude of the writer towards the thing, person or idea described. Thus, epithets can also be based on similarity of characteristics, on nearness of the qualified objects, and on their comparison respectively. The epithet can be based on the interplay of logical and emotive meaning in an attributive word, phrase or even sentence, used to characterize an object and pointing out to the reader some of the properties or features of the object with the aim of giving an individual perception and evaluation of these features or properties.
Many outstanding philologists studied the epithet as a variety of the path: F. I. Buslaev, A. N. Veselovsky, A. A. Potebnya, V. M. Zhirmunsky, B. V. Tomashevsky and others, but until now science does not have a developed theory of the epithet, there is no single terminology necessary for characterizing various kinds of epithets. The concept of «epithet» is sometimes unfairly expanded, referring to it any adjective that acts as a function of definition. However, epithets should not include adjectives that indicate the distinctive features of objects and do not give them a figurative characteristic. For example, in the sentence Oak Leaf broke away from the branch by the homeland (L.) — adjectives perform only a semantic function. Unlike epithets, such definitions are sometimes called logical.
Definitions expressed by words that retain their direct meaning in the text can not be attributed to trails, but this does not mean that they can not perform an aesthetic function, be a powerful visual medium. For example: On the blue, excised ice plays the sun; The dirty snow melts dirty in the streets (P.) — these exact epithets are not inferior in expressiveness to any metaphorical that the artist could use to describe the early spring. Vivid depictions often give speech color epithets (pink clouds, pale-clear azure, pale golden spots of light — T.). Another AN. Veselovsky noted the national symbolism of colors, when the physiological perception of color and light is associated with mental sensations (green — fresh, clear, young, white — coveted, light, joyful).
Epithets are explored from different perspectives, while offering different classifications. From the genetic point of view, epithets can be divided into common language (grave silence, lightning-fast solution), and individual-authoring (cold horror, effeminate negligence, chilling politeness — T.), folk-poetic (red girl, good young man). The latter are called still permanent, since the word combinations with them have acquired a stable character in the language.
If speak about the role of epithet in Uzbek and English poetry, we can say undoubtedly that it is the most effective poetic method. O.Veselovskiy claimed that epithet’s history is shortened type of poetic method. According to V. M. Jirmunskiy’sopinion, epithet is something important, which helps to choose the most necessary signs among things other signs and it shows poet’s poetic qualities. Words, which describe quality, color, volume, shape, taste and position of things, are considered as comparison in English and Uzbek too.This comparison in literal language is named epithet. The epithet moves from one thing to another slightly different by meanings of its basic.
In order to increase the beauty of descriptions of objects it is always used more and in effective way and takes attentions of all readers of that plays. Epithet plays an important role in poetry to describe object exciting and beautiful. Poetic epithetoften helps to describe persons’ qualities more attractive and appealing. An epithet is an adjective or adjectival phrase that characterizes a place, a thing, or a person that helps make the characteristics of this thing more prominent. These descriptive phrases can be used in a positive or negative way that benefits the orator.
The meanings of epithet maybe different in all languages and all of them have the unusual method of using them. For instance, epithets in English and epithets in Uzbek are not actually similar and have different definitions.
Epithets in English describes something in a beautiful and emotional way; beauty of nature are often used; they use a word in a way that is slightly different from its basic description; describe their lovers in unrepeatable, unique and moving way; the epithets, which are used in Byron’s poems are metaphorical, metonymic and ironical; it describes things with our visional, hearing, smelling sensational functions; English poetry is rich with epithet to describe their brave and clever kings and their beautiful queens; it is a byname, or a descriptive term, accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage; it can be described as a glorified nickname.
Uzbek classic literature differs from English poetry with their method of using epithet. For example, Uzbek poetry mainly describes the divine love to the God; the God is described as “a flower”; Mashrab’s, A.Navoiy’s plays are mostly in this way; the words “wine”, “flower”, “love”, “heart” are often used; the love to the God is the main part of them; they also describe dreams and wishes of people; lyrical hero describes his love to the God with beautiful epithetic expressions.
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