In article there are considered about innovative methods of teaching English at schools. The progress and principle changes of the methods of the study of the language, certainly, are connected with novation in the field of psychologies of the personalities and groups. As well as there is analyzed the old and new methods of the foreign language teaching.
Key words: methods, methods of teaching, fundamental methods, classical approach, lingua-cultural method, communicative approach
В статье рассмотрены инновационные методы преподавания английского языка в средних школах. Прогресс и принципиальные изменения методов изучения языка, конечно же, связаны с новациями в области психологии личностей и групп. Также анализируются старые и новые методы преподавания иностранного языка.
Ключевые слова: методы, методы обучения, классический подход, лингвокультурный метод, коммуникативный подход
At the end of the XX century in Uzbekistan there was a «revolution» in the methods of teaching English. Previously, all without the rest were given priorities grammar, almost mechanical mastery of vocabulary, reading, and literary translation. Now in order to achieve high social status requires a lot of diligence, perseverance and daily work. Unexpectedly foreign language teachers at the center of public attention: the legions of experts in various fields of science, culture, business, technology, and all other areas of human activity demanded the immediate teaching of foreign languages as an instrument of production.
They are not interested in theory or history of language — foreign languages, especially English — they need only functional for use in different spheres of society as a means of communicating with real people from other countries.
Progress and fundamental changes of language learning methods, undoubtedly related to the innovations in the field of personality psychology and group. Who felt a noticeable change in the minds of people and the development of new ways of thinking: there is proclaimed the need for self-actualization and self-realization. The psychological factor of learning foreign languages promoted to leading positions. The authenticity of the communication, the weighted requirements and claims, mutual benefit, respect for the freedom of others — this is a set of unwritten rules build constructive relations in the system «teacher-pupil» It really is the oldest and most traditional method, on a fundamental technique seriously rely language universities. Translator is never confident in their knowledge of a foreign language, he understands the unpredictability arising speech situations. Catching up on classical technique, the students not only to operate a wide variety of lexical formations, but also learn to see the world through the eyes of «native speaker» — a language carrier.
In this regard, there are transformed several classic approach to the study of a foreign language, but the immutable principles of the «classics» of language techniques are preserved. Sometimes they are used extensively in schools and other educational areas. Classic course is aimed at students of all ages and most often involves the study of language «from zero». The teacher's tasks include the traditional, but important aspects of pronunciation performances, forming a grammatical base, elimination of psychological and linguistic barriers to communication. «Classic» has not changed the goals, but the methods, due to the new approach, already others.
At the heart of the classical approach there is the understanding of language as a real and proper means of communication, which means that all components of language — spoken and written language, listening, etc. for developing students systematically and harmoniously. Classical method partly makes language an end in itself, but it cannot be considered a disadvantage. This integrated approach is aimed in the first place, the fact to develop the students' ability to understand and create it.
The technique involves exercises with Uzbek teachers, but such an order (though not quite «fashionable») cannot be considered a minus: a teacher who is not a native speaker, has the ability to analyze and compare two linguistic systems, to compare the structure, communicate better, to explain the rules of grammar, to prevent possible errors. Universal enthusiasm for foreign specialists — a temporary phenomenon, because the Western world has appreciated bilingualism a priority (possession of two languages). The most valuable in the world today are the teachers, the ability to think in the context of the two cultures and to convey to students the appropriate range of knowledge.
Linguo-sociocultural method is one of the most serious and comprehensive methods for the study of a foreign language — involving an appeal to such a component, as a social and cultural environment. Proponents of this method are strongly believed that language loses life when teachers and students aim to acquire a «lifeless» lexical and grammatical forms. Someone remarked that «personality — is the product of culture». Language — too. (3, p.78) And it convincingly confirms our language mistakes. Learning English is grammatically correct to use the expression of The Queen and Her relatives, but the Briton could hardly understand what is meant by The Royal Family; or, for example, a phrase, a hero — spokesman of the ideas of the author has been translated sentence «The hero is the loudspeaker of the author» («the speaker of the author») and ideally wanted to use «mouthpiece».
Such oddities are quite common. Referring to the finer matter: for example, if our compatriot, surfactants know the language, the difference between the expressions “Don't you want to go?” and “Would you like to go?” not very large, then for the British, it is fundamental, because first he did not accept as the best tone. Habitual for our business communication “What issues are you interested in?” often translated as «What problems are you interested in?", not taking into account that in the English word «problems» is steadily negative connotation. That's right, this question will be heard: «What issues are you interested in.
Most of the methods initially allow such «mistakes», writing off them to «unawareness of the country». But at the present stage, when interest in certain cultures and nations constantly increasing, similar errors have unforgivable. Linguo-sociocultural method takes into account the simple fact that 52 % of the errors committed under the influence of the native language, and 44 % lie within studied. Before watching over the correctness of speech; now, in addition, it seeks to improve its meaningfulness.
What is important here is the meaning of transmitted information that is the communicative level, because in any case, the ultimate goal of communication — be understood.
Linguo-sociocultural method involves two aspects of communication — linguistic and cross-cultural. Our lexicon added a new word bicultural — people easily orient themselves in national characteristics, history, culture and customs of the two countries, civilizations. For the student of language high school is not so much a high level of reading, writing, translation (although this is not excluded), and “Linguo-sociocultural competence”- the ability to “dissect” the language of culture under the microscope.
Scientists of classics in particular Ozhegov understood language as «an instrument of communication, exchange of ideas and mutual understanding of people in society». Dahl considered to the language easier — as «the combination of all the words of the people and the faithful of their combination, to transmit their thoughts» (2, p.34).
Today, the language is «not only vocabulary, but also the way a person to express themselves». It is used for «purposes of communication and is able to express the totality of human knowledge and ideas about the world». In the West, the language is understood as a «communication system», which consists of some fragments and a set of rules that are used for the purpose of communication. A very important difference between the western linguistic thinking — understanding of the language, not only in connection with the definition of the state, but also with a certain part of the country, the area, etc.
In this approach, a language goes hand in hand with the culture of the country, the region, that is, the ideas, the customs of a certain group of people, society. Sometimes the culture of society itself is understood, civilization.
We believe that the definition of supporters of linguo-sociocultural method does not exaggerate the strength and importance of language in the modern world. In their view, the language — «a powerful social instrument forming the human flow in the ethnic group that forms the nation through the storage and transmission of culture, traditions and social consciousness of the verbal complex. With this approach to the language of intercultural communication especially “the adequate understanding of the two interlocutors or people exchanging information belonging to different national cultures”. Then their language becomes a« sign of belonging to a certain of its carriers to the society».(1, p.169)
Linguo-sociocultural method combines linguistic structure (grammar, vocabulary, etc.) with extra linguistic factors. Then, at the intersection of philosophy on a national scale and the language, that is a kind of thought process (let's not forget that the person belongs to the same country, which thinks in the language), is born the rich world of language, of which he wrote the linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt «through language diversity offers a wealth of the world for us and the diversity of what we know it»...linguo-sociocultural technique is based on the following axiom: «socio-cultural structures underlie linguistic structures». We know the world by thinking in a particular cultural field, and use language to express their experiences, opinions, emotions and perception.
The purpose of learning the language with the help of this method is facilitating and understanding of the interlocutor, the formation of perception on an intuitive level. Therefore, every student who has chosen such an organic and holistic approach is to treat language as a mirror, which reflects the geography, climate, and history of the people, their living conditions, traditions, and way of life, everyday behavior, and creativity.
- Galskova N. D., Modern methods of teaching foreign languages. M: 2000.
- Milrud R. P., Maximova I. R., Modern design principles of communicative teaching. // Foreign languages at school, № 4, 2000.
- Pavlov I. Y., Methodology of teaching foreign languages lectures in English): Review of modern teaching methods — 2nd ed., St. Petersburg. Univ., 2003.