In Uzbekistan, people under the age of 25 comprise approximately over 60 % of the total population. The essence of educational reform in Uzbekistan is to preserve the present intellectual potential of the educational system and to modify our goals and activities in order to develop individuals who are capable to build and live in a democratic civil society and a free market economy. Therefore, one of our main goals is to educate a healthy generation, both physically and mentally.
Considering the principals and experiences of developed countries of the world, the Republic of Uzbekistan has recognized its main direction of educational development. They are as follows:
‒ Modification and further perfection of the education and socialization content
‒ Development of new school, curricula and textbooks
‒ Stress on individual ability and talent
‒ Vocational and professional development in accordance with changing economic needs
‒ Integrating Uzbekistan with world educational standards
We realize one of the main results to accomplishing educational reform is changing the thinking and mentality of our people and society. This is of great importance. At the same time we understand that by striving to create a new education system according to the world standards, we will achieve success not only in our country, but we might by sharing our knowledge and experience with developing countries add our contribution to the world educational system.
The education system policy of Uzbekistan is based on the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Constitution of Karakalpakstan, the laws “On education” and the National Programme on Personal Training, decrees of the President of Uzbekistan and resolutions of Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Education is the first and foremost among the factors that affect human potential. The concept of educational reforms developed in Uzbekistan envisions the following among major goals:
‒ re-orientation of the educational system towards market economy and open society;
‒ creation of equal educational opportunities in order to provide stable and quality educational services and enhance the effectiveness of resources use;
‒ Improvement of the educational sector management.
The system of vocational education is of great importance in socio-economic and spiritual development of society. That is confirmed by a long history of its operation. It has become an urgent task of training and education of skilled workers of mass professions, training of young people for life and work. Vocational education is one of the most important channels of general secondary education. Modern production makes high demands on the training of workers. Special knowledge, professional excellence, a common culture are prerequisite for successful labor workers.
An analysis of the dynamics of change quantitative and organizational forms of vocational education of the Republic, by the nature of its development can be roughly defined as follows:
- Unstable (origin and formation of the national vocational education as the education system) — 1924–1940 years
- Mobilization (military and post-war period) — 1941–1959 years
- Evolutionary (monotonic development) — 1960–1980 years
- The pre-crisis (spasmodic development) -1981–1986 years
- Crisis (qualitative changes in development) -1987–1990 years
- Adaptation (stabilization and gradual exit from the crisis) — 1991–1996 years
- A new development (implementation of the national model) -1997–2005 years
Solving the problems in 1997, in the country was developed and approved national programs and training. The aim of the “National Program on Personnel Training” is a radical reform of education and vocational training, including the creation of a system of training of highly qualified personnel in the developed democracies. One of the distinguishing features of the National model of training is to introduce separate types of education, such as the nine-year general secondary education and three-year secondary vocational education are compulsory. It was created a new type of educational institutions: academic lyceums and professional colleges, offering the possibility of mastering one or more modern professions and the acquisition-depth theoretical knowledge in various academic disciplines. The choice of the institution of a particular type is voluntary. Moreover, both college high schools so gives the right to continue their education in the subsequent education levels. Thus, a new impetus to the development of professional education of the Republic received in connection with the adoption in August 1997 of the Law «On the National Program on Personnel Training». It creates a new kind of national system of education, open educational institutions of a new type- academic lyceums and professional colleges, secondary specialized vocational education.
In accordance with the national program for training education in the country is implemented in the following forms: pre-school, general secondary, specialized secondary and vocational education, higher education, postgraduate education, re‐training and skills‐improvement of the personnel; out‐of‐school education.
As can be seen the main feature of this model — is the continuity of education. That is, a person has the opportunity to acquire knowledge, skills and qualifications throughout his life. Nine years of general secondary education and three years of specialized secondary or vocational education, which ensure the continuity of the transition from secondary to professional programs.
This program creates an effective mechanism for the educational system, which has as its main components present respect for the individual, the disclosure of abilities and creativity; the formation of free-thinking man, his moral, physical and spiritual development; progressive training, acquisition of professional skills and a complete personal fulfillment in life.
This is a period of full capacity when the youth is fully responsible for his actions. After finishing his studies at the college or high school, received a deep theoretical knowledge and specialization, being formed physically, morally and spiritually, he is ready for full self-realization in the society. In general, we note the length of secondary special education in the most developed countries in the world is 12 years.
Another important and distinctive feature of the National Personnel Training Programme, the implementation of which has become a truly national, a national matter, is that it is implemented gradually and constantly going on its improvement and development.
1. The law “On education”, «On the National Personal Training Programme» 29 August 1997.
2. Развитие профессионально-технического образования в Узбекистан. Д. Бахронов.
3. www. ziyonet.uz
4. www. edunews.ru