Children a greater potential for developing accurate pronunciation accent and fluency before puberty.
Children’s favorable attitude towards language a language and its culture, either their mother tongue or a second language children’s less mental barriers of learning than adults.
Children’s learning two languages simultaneously without from inter-lingual interference listening along with speaking a preliminary and preferable role in the natural of language acquisition for children but learners of different ages have different characteristics is more preferable than the critical hypothesis. Besides accurate pronunciation is not the most important goal of language learning but a necessary or desirable goal.
There are also other factors that determine the effectiveness of one’s language learning such as teacher’s language competence, the learning environment and so on a good learner of English is
Willing to experiment
Willing to listen
Willing to ask question
Willing to think about how to learn
Independent responsible. To teach English language makes more important role the teacher.
1) Technical knowledge– understanding linguistics grasping basic principles of language learning and teaching, language proficiencies in speaking, reading, written and listening, knowledge about language
Learning process through one’s own experience; understanding the relationship between culture and language and knowledge of latest development of language teaching and learning
2) Pedagogical skills — well — informant language teaching approaches; teaching techniques; ability in lesson plan design and otherclassroombehavior management skills.
4) Personal qualities.
Deductive learning of grammar is the most important in learning of foreign language.
1) Deductive grammar in which learners are taught rules and specific information about a language. They then apply these rules when they use the language for example, in the grammar translation method, specific grammar rules are given to learners and practice subsequenty follows to familiarize students with the rule. The feature of it are time-saving and suitable for adult learners who can affordabstract thinking in feel.
2) Inductive learning — is an approach to language learning in which learners are not thought grammatical or other types of rule directly but are left to discover or induce rules from their experience of using the language. Language teaching methods which emphasize use of language rather than presentation of information about the language include the direct method, the communicative approach and counseling learning.
Performance and competence
Performance— a person’s actual use of language; how a person uses his knowledge of a language in producing and understanding sentences.
Competence — a person’s knowledge of a language
People may have the competence to produce a long sentence but when they actually try to use this knowledge, there are reasons why they restrict it. For example, they may run out of breath or their listeners forget what has been said if the sentence is too long. Due to performance factors such as fatigue, lack of attention, nervousness or excitement, their actual use of language may not reflect their competence. The errors they make are described as examples of performance.
Bottom-up processing— a way making use principally of information which is already present in the data (words, sentences, etc.) such as understanding a text mainly by analyzing the words and sentences in the text itself.
- Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching, Diane Larsen-Freeman, Oxford University Press.
- Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, H. Douglas Brown, Prentice Hall Regents.
- Teaching by Principles, H. Douglas Brown, Prentice Hall Regents.
- Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Jack C. Richards & Theodore S. Rodgers, Cambridge University Press.