Researches on inter-language lexical conformity have begun during prehistoric moment that far and unknown to the world when among different source language communities inter-language communications began at first to be carried out. With development of the writing, training of foreign speech and written translational practice, there was a necessity for an establishment ofinter-language lexical conformity that has led to creation of the first bilingual converses and dictionaries. Comparative-historical studying of languages, typological searches, researches on universal and comparative synchronous analysis of lexical structures and systems put forward new problems for the research concerning to lexical units of different languages. Definition and the description of inter-language conformity and their theoretical judgment promoted accumulation and fixation in various dictionaries, textbooks, grants, scientific monographs and articles of infinite quantity concrete, real inter-language lexical conformity and have allowed to make important, not only for lexicology, but also for linguistics in general, theoretical conclusions and generalizations.
The existence of inter-language lexical conformity is not casual, but the natural fact of the language validity which, as well as possibility of translation, speaks extra — linguistic and linguistic factors. One of the main reasons causing natural character inter-language of conformity, consists in uniform material essence of human thinking which from the physiological, psychological and logic points of view submitting to the general laws and is identical to all people, and from inter language adequate positions. The thinking of all people is expressed in one hypostasis in language as that, being materialized in forms of concrete national languages. But «however development of concrete languages was original, they do not fall outside the limits universal categories of language in general, and act as only various realizations of its separate possibilities of display».* * The natural essence of lexical conformity is connected with linguistic universals, fixing uniformity of language signs, and first of all, it follows from universality of logic-conceptual structures of languages, depends that the word is obligatory conceptual unit of any modern language, and in it the various facts comprehended by the person and natural phenomena and societies are reflected. The material validity which as a whole is identical to all mankind and is reflected in the concepts fixed in lexical units predetermines existence inter-language lexical conformity. And though lexical категоризация the validity — the life partition on the concepts put into words, — occurs differently in various languages, and ideographic sites have unequal словный volume and borders, nevertheless the general area of the learnt life reflected in lexicon basically coincides at all developed modern languages. If thematically organized lexicon of two such languages to impose against each other it will appear, that, despite distinctions and features in the organization of lexical sets, it marks almost same continuum of the validity, being an original mirror of an epoch for there are no things and the learnt concepts which would not have the name. During historical development of a human society processes of global integration considerably prevail over tendencies to national isolation of the people. With each subsequent public formation socio-economic factors finally promote wider and intensive association of terrestrial civilizations. P. I. Kopanev, one of the first in traditional translation theory so has defined influence of various social laws on transfer: «From our point of view, tribes and the people, and then and the nations, go to universal, world civilizations two ways: on an accumulation and exchange way universal lines and the products of material and spiritual culture available and more and more developing in public practice of each people, each nation as each people, each nation certain parts of mankind make, and together taken, they represent all mankind; on a way of a national-historical originality which collects in each people, in each nation according to their features national-historical development which principle is all-round expansion of originally national lines of culture to international lines of world culture common to all mankind. Integrally intertwining, universal and original in each people and in each nation form a basis for formation universal world civilization. The anthropology, ethnography, history, linguistics and sociology confirm globalized world development».* In this similarity and constant increase in lines common to all mankind and characteristics of world culture one of acknowledgement of natural character inter language lexical conformity is covered not only one of the theoretical proofs of possibility of transfer and все general increasing degrees of equivalence and adequacy to the original of translation products, but also. So far as the world, spiritual and material achievements of science and technology, riches of cultures, the past and the present, have set of similarities and general features and find the increasing unity in world civilization, also the semantic maintenance of dictionary structure of various languages of the world shows the increasing affinity, reducing quantity so-called non-equivalent lexicon and conceptual distinctions in values of compared words. All languages are correlated in respect of the maintenance basically at level of words-concepts, and historically increased degree of this correlation and continue to increase. Certainly, it does not mean, that in languages distinctions have disappeared and that already there are no the concepts finding the verbal expression only in lexical systems of separate languages. It is a question that a life of the people, their material and spiritual culture have more than the general, than various that this similarity is constant, though and non-uniformly in the conditions of the state dissociation, increases and that, at last, tendencies of its development promote fuller transfer of the semantic information while translating texts from one language on another.
So, the generality of a terrestrial civilization, unity of laws of human thinking and universality of natural communicative system of mankind — language cause adequate translation possibility in general and presence of natural lexical conformity in particular. The fact of existence of such kind of cogitative activity as transfer, and its materialized results, uncountable quantity of translation texts, theoretical postulates on objective character inter-language conformity in practice.
In translation analysis of inter-language lexical conformity is conducted not for the sake of a regulation of any mechanical replacements of lexical units of the original by corresponding words and target language expressions, and for that studying that lexical units in transfer as they can differ from words of the original transfer and form the thought corresponding to thought of an original phrase, otherwise, it is a question of the comparative analysis of semantic, stylistic and functional characteristics of compared words and expressions for any thought, any emotions transferred in the text are designed, created from words and lexical units equivalent to them. The researcher can study object in all its integrity or analyze its components, but it is inadmissible to it to absolute private, to forget about its communication and dependence on the general. The word, for example, in a work of art depends on a phrase context, the phrase depends on a paragraph context, the paragraph — from wider language context, for example heads, the head — from a book context, the book — from language and style of all creativity of the author, creativity of the author — from features of language of a literary direction etc. And unit of each level depends not only on a context corresponding to it, but also from contextual level of higher hierarchy. And researchers subject all these parts of various contexts to the analysis for the purpose of definition of their own features and laws, and also their interaction with contexts of higher or lower levels. However the word occupying the lowest semantic level in the art text differs from a phrase, the paragraph, the head and the book that these last essence speech products and do not exist in system of language as carriers of concrete sense before process of their generation in speech, before creation of the text. Before the word and its use in speech did the independent semantic unit acquires concrete, known essence of native speakers by lexical values.
A word is a part of system of language, and at the same times in speech it is a part of lexical-stylistic system of the given literary work. This functional duality of a word defines an originality of its studying in texts and special complexities of the comparative analysis of lexicon in translation.
However natural character inter-language conformity is defined not only the factors specified above, but also existence on inter-language level of correlative lexica-semantic categories.
On basis of various criteria the analysis of the named categories which to a certain extent predetermine character of some translational comparisons should precede allocation of translational conformity.
The synchronously-comparative method which has received rather a wide circulation in modern linguistics, allows establishing functional and semantic coincidence and distinctions in compared languages. Such comparisons spent on the basis of descriptive or any other technique, reveal degree of mutual adequacy of the language facts and their sets in compared languages and open before the theory of transfer ample opportunities in studying informatively equivalent and the equivalent units united by invariance of the maintenance. inter-language comparison of lexica-semantic level find out natural lexica-semantic correlative categories. Taking into consideration the semantic maintenance of compared lexical units, their sound (graphic) form, and also their syntagmatic and speech characteristics, scientific distinguish such synchronic межъязыковые categories, as absolute and relative synonymy, a homonymy and parody. These categories of words of V. V. Аkulenko, defines as follows: «The role of inter-language synonyms is played by the words of both languages in full or in part coinciding on value and the use (and accordingly being equivalents while translating). In inter-language it is possible to name homonyms words of both languages, similar identifications on degree, on sound (or graphic) the form, but having different values. At last, to inter-language to parody, it is necessary to carry the words of compared languages not quite similar under the form, but able to cause at larger or smaller number of persons false associations and to be identified with each other, despite an actual divergence of their values. In turn, inter-language synonyms can be divided on outwardly similar (on identification degree in processes of contact and comparison of languages) and outwardly various». Inter-language relative synonyms of a similar kind, homonyms and parodies, make that category of words which in translation name «false friends to the translator». Unless equally sound revolution, revolution (English), revolution (fr.), revoluciоn. (исп.), Revolution (it.) This sounding can be only similar. edition gives a footnote: as» False friends to the translator»in linguistics are called interlanguage homonyms — the words having identical sounding, different values».R. A. Budagov gives cautious interpretation of such more homonyms. He speaks about «words, and similar (outwardly), in unlike (functionally) against each other» (in the same place it is not casual because it is hardly possible to speak about identical sounding inter-language homonyms. From language to language the similarity degree varies, and is rather considerable, from at times in languages with an identical drawing a writing inter-language homonyms much more «homophones», than their sounding.
- Akulenko V. V. About «false friends to the translator». //the English-Russian and Russian-English dictionary of «false friends to the translator». М, 1969. With. 371–372.
- R. A. Budagova's review of «the English-Russian and Russian-English dictionary«false friends to the translator» («Skill of translation»see. 1971. М, 1972)