To evaluate the motivational needs of physical education teachers in Mahmudabad county
Akbar Rostami, Physical education teacher
Mahmudabad Department of Education (India)
The aim of this study is to investigate the hierarchy of motivational needs of physical education teachers education is Mahmudabad County. This research is descriptive for the field. The study consisted of all physical education teachers are Mahmudabad County. Since their number is limited by census sampling, sample population was considered (n = s). To collect information in relation to part of the research objectives of the questionnaire consisting of two sections and individual features the standard questionnaire containing 20 questions Jones and Pfeiffer related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs five motivational needs. And reliability through Cronbach's alpha (=0/87) has been identified and approved. The results showed that no significant relationship between sex and age there are physiological needs. The need for love and affection between the following variables: employment, work experience and age are significant variables standard. By need to respect and work experience and age there is a significant relationship. Between the need for security and self-actualization no significant relationship with demographic variables. And finally it became clear that the research community needs based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs is not a hierarchy of needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs of the research community and there is a significant difference. The results showed that all of Maslow's needs with a high level of strength and motivation to study and compare, the need to respect, physiological needs and safety needs as the first to third priority more important than other needs from the perspective of physical education teachers are. Incentive needs five physical education teachers working in education in the county Mahmoudabad need to respect the need Physiological, safety needs, social needs and the need for self-actualization is.
Key words: motivation, hierarchy of needs, physical education teachers, physical education, school
Skilled manpower and efficient in today's world, such as precious and past employees, not cheap. Today, productivity can be improved through the use of time and the potential for increased labor and others in an organization. For this purpose, it must be in the labor force motivation. Regardless of what size its organizational machinery and equipment is present, this possibility cannot be implemented unless there is staff motivation and not subjected to guide and using the facilities. Increase productivity across the organization, the need to supply several conditions, the most important of manpower. Force motivated to perform organizational tasks, the most important factor is productivity and morale by increasing employee motivation and job satisfaction will be provided. Therefore, motivating individuals to identify needs and to satisfy their needs in the workplace attention. Motivation is an internal state that encourages people to do certain activities. Some experts’ impetus to the need, desire, inclination or inner force knows that people are willing to do it. Some impetus to the cause of human behavior, and they believe that whatever a person does stimulant under the influence of incentive or requirement that he perform those acts . Motivation discussion in the social sciences is important, because all aspects of management efforts and its application to raise motivation and to encourage them to improve performance. Research onthe causes ofemployee behavior,aspirations of individualsandorganizationsjobs, quality ofitandthat sort ofmindsto themotivationof thedraw. Employee motivation is very important for the organization to achieve its goals and those without motivation, no doubt, will have little participation in an organized effort. Awareness of the problem of motivation, which in fact causes toys and whys behavior of individuals in the organization, is essential for any manager. Exploring the issue of motivation can be answered whys of human behavior . A theory of human motivation was developed in 1943 by Abraham Maslow. This theory as a theory of intrinsic motivation is taken into consideration. Because individual needs and desires within themselves there and there. Maslow's hierarchy of needs from the perspective of human needs on a regular basis, which meet every need, the next occurrence will be required in order are: physiological needs, safety needs, belonging or social, respect and self-actualization needs [4, 16].
The notion that satisfy some needs take precedence over other needs that must be satisfied before other needs, according to Maslow's theory of forms. Physical requirements often considered as basic needs and survival and life without them is impossible. These needs cannot be left unsatisfied for a long time and must be satisfied before other needs. As the need for water, air, food, clothing, housing, etc. includes their basic needs. In normal situations, when a person is placed in a state of starvation or deprivation of water. Compared to other issues as food or water, is less attention . The required accuracy, that the one who undertakes the way to resolve the need for employment. So when employment income is unable to respond to those needs, will be a stimulus for motivation. But when men can satisfy these basic needs, rather than physiological needs, other levels of needs is important and the motivation of people to satisfy the needs of the higher layer. When the physiological needs were fairly well satisfied, especially the higher levels are emerging and influence on human behavior. It needs the safety or security requirements to protect against risk, threat and deprivation tend . Human requires that in a safe environment free from intimidation, physical and mental, have a free life. Employee organizations require that they be imperious or cruel, security of employment and be able to work in conditions that are not causing unpredictable decisions and policies. If security is a person in danger are other things to downplay his . When the human physiological needs and providing reasonable and appropriate in their satisfaction, social needs or who are causing the behavioral impulsivity. As the need for love and belonging, cooperation, social acceptance, fraternization, love and true friendship and the fact that social beings and need for belonging and acceptance to various groups, while the dominate social needs Person to make informed and meaningful relationships with others will try every good society if it wants to remain sustainable needs must use any means possible satisfy the . After satisfying the human need for social belonging, need to be in a position to determine the suitability of him, so he appears to feel the need to respect the. The need to honor the fourth level of Maslow's needs, which include feelings of achievement and success, and being able to achieve acceptance and recognition of the other and so on . In other words, the need for motivating the people manifested when the previous needs are reasonably satisfied. Unlike the previous requirements, it seems unlikely that these needs are met in full. However, this requires a one-time individual person is important and constantly searches for ways to satisfy them. Maslow's self-actualization or self-discovery highest requirements introduced by name. As you understand human life will only be given the highest hopes. When the individual self-actualization needs emerge that all his other needs are satisfied.. These needs include understanding individual potential, personal satisfaction, personal development and creativity in developing sustain intense feelings in all circumstances, even if all lower-tier requirements are met, if the person does what he most demanding and important has to do, you may experience unpleasant situations . In terms of motivation, this theory says that although no completely but do not meet every need that is fulfilled basically, it does not motivate. Although Maslow's hierarchy believes that the main needs of most people are honest and critical, though he notes that this hierarchy is not true for all people. Maslow's hierarchy of needs also points out a common thing upside down. Some people are more important to your self-esteem to love (social needs), such people feel like they could only meet the needs of love and belonging, self-esteem and feel strongly they value . Of research in the field of research and related issues inside and outside the country can be the investigation will be referred to. In a study entitled motivation of Educational Administration to investigate the relationship between the needs of motivational management (hierarchy of needs Maslow) and the adoption of secondary school education Foumanat in 1372 took place, physiological needs (15/42 percent), safety requirements (17/24), social needs (23/68), esteem needs (9/19) and self-actualization needs (24/54) have been reported . Which has as motivational needs of technicians and experts in Physical Education Organization of Tehran in 1374 was to represent Social needs, needs dignity and respect, self-actualization needs, physiological needs and safety needs as the motivational needs of the research community are. Motivational Needs of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs as school principals in Tehran, according to the study, which was conducted in 1375 at Shahid Beheshti University Tehran and the assumption of Maslow's hierarchy of needs was rejected for managers The result was that the occurrence of physiological needs and then to the social needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs and safety requirements. In 1997, a research study on the impact of extrinsic motivation on employees' ability to work in Korean in 2002 by Chung was Ayvnmy Showed that external motivators such as money and job security had a significant impact on employee motivation That the influence of money and wages are higher than job security. In another study, which was conducted by Cecilia Alksva in 2002 in Slovakia, the Slovak job seekers who were college graduates for employment motivational factors stated in the following order Decent salary, attractive jobs (creativity at work, initiative and understanding of the job), job security, working conditions (working time, physical aspects work and work environment), job promotion, employment benefits (including insurance, entertainment and recreation leisure), social aspects (Jvsmymy, friendly and collaboration), communications (information flow and organizational communication), policy, organization, leadership and management (characteristics such as honesty director, assessment and evaluation freely and help with reward employees). For this purpose, various research organizations to identify the needs and motivation of personnel due to the need for organizations to this type of research in the field of physical education in this type of research is essential.. According to what was said, is to study the method of assessment, five levels of needs and priorities in their physical education teachers play an important role in improving the educational system to identify. The factors that motivate teachers of physical education and affect their efficiency as a subject of study were selected and as motivational needs of teachers Mahmudabad city Department of Education physical education teachers based on the theory of Maslow's hierarchy of needs motivation to do with it is up to education officials concerned with planning and practical solutions they can, physical education teachers in the achievement of self-realization, on their condition. It is hoped that small step towards progress and development of the educational system to be removed.
The research methods, descriptive data collected through field method is applied. To determine the incentive needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs-based physical education teachers Mahmudabad city is done. The research population consists of all physical education teachers (25 female and 45 male) from primary, secondary, primary and secondary schools in the academic year 1394–95 teaches Mahmudabad city were up. Since the number is limited and small population, the sample population was considered (n = s). To collect information on the Governor's part of the objectives of the research that has been designed by Jones and Jafr which consists of two parts The questionnaire questions related to demographic research community and the second part 20-item questionnaire related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs is five motivational needs. The reliability through Cronbach's alpha (=0/87) specified and approved. In this study, each of the four questions Maslow's needs are evaluated and the whole needs of (12+) to (12) were examined. The rating is achieved higher requirements, reflects the strength of overestimating the need is assessed. Score range (8 to 12+) the power of a high level (+4 to +7) motivational power is relatively high, (+3 to -3) average power, incentive, (4 to -7) low motivational power and the whole (8- to -12) low motivational power show. To investigate and describe the data, descriptive statistics (Table data, percentages) and for comparative analysis data, the methods of inferential statistics (t-test and ANOVA tests with significance level of P≤0.05 considered a) was used.
Results and findings
Review of data related to individual characteristics showed that the percent female teachers of Physical Education County Mahmudabad 35/7and 64/3 percent were male. In terms of age, the majority of them in the age group 35 years and above (54/28 percent) there. 2/8 percent has a baccalaureate degree in physical education teachers, physical education teacher’s percent Diploma14 /3, 68/6 percent masters physical education teachers, physical education teachers are masters of 14/3 percent. More physical education teachers (68/6 percent) have formal employment and the majority of teachers in Teaching Physical Education (54/3 percent) of them have 15 years of teaching experience. The results showed that all five needs in most research community has a high motivational power. 80/10 percent physiological needs, the need for security in 79/5 percent in 62/8 percent social need, the need to respect the need for self-actualization in the 43/4, 82/8percent and percent of subjects with a high level of power had. Respect the needs, physiological and safety needs as the first, second and third priorities are more important than other needs. The findings indicate that male physical education teachers and physical education teachers need security needs of women need to be more physiologic. Pact troops formally employed over the need to love (social needs), while recruiters need to respect the official forces were at the forefront. On the whole, the need to respect the highest average in the population studied. And the distance between the two was minimal physiological and safety needs. Statistical relationships between Maslow's needs, and demographic variables shows that: between physiological needs and there is a significant relationship between age and gender. Between social needs and age, teaching experience and employment status there is a meaningful relationship. The need to respect and there is a significant relationship between age and teaching experience. And in connection with the need for security and the need for self-actualization no significant relationship with demographic variables. It also became clear that the research community needs are not hierarchical and the hierarchy of needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs of the research community, and there was a significant difference.
Discussion and conclusion
According to the results, it can be said that the need to respect the physical education teachers is very strong and relatively strong physiological and safety needs, social needs and the need for self-actualization, then partly seen as weak and inconsequential. As he himself states that Maslow hierarchy of needs is flexible. So the order of the hierarchy of needs to provide a general framework that using it may be based on the likely behavior occurred more or less predicted. The results showed that in the hierarchy of needs, physiological as needed with a high level of power is the second priority However, in Maslow's hierarchy of needs, these needs have been identified as having first. The results with the results of research conducted by Frkhtar (1370), bracelets (1380) and Lawrence Lynd hal year (1949) have shown that, for physiological needs and research priorities in the fifth hierarchy Ebrahimzadeh (1374) and Karim (1375) physiological needs in the hierarchy of needs is considered as the fourth priority, inconsistent. While the investigation conducted by the Amir (1375) showed that physiological needs in terms of priority needs are in second place. While the social needs and respect the needs of men. In another study at Catholic University (1997) took place as the most important motivational factor as the physiological needs. Ewen Ji Chang in 2002, the most important motivational factors in improving employee performance Korean physiological needs as a similar study in Slovakia (2002) show that most university graduates their motives for the employment of a decent salary they. According to the results of this study can be said that most internal investigation of physiological need as least important to have as needed while researching physiological abroad need to have raised the most important requirement is similar to Maslow's research. In examining the safety needs of the community it became clear that this requires third priority is research. The results Frkhtar (1370), bracelets (1373), Ebrahimzadeh (1374) showed that the fourth priority is safety requirements, inconsistent and in statistical research (1375), Karimi (1375), this requirement has been introduced as needed fifth. In this Lyndhal Lawrence (1949) industries require security staff have put a priority quarter. In examining the social needs of the population was found that this need is fourth in importance. Based on the research results Frkhtar (1370), Ebrahimzadeh (1374), Amir (1375) is ranked second in the hierarchy of needs and social needs in research Fariba Karimi (1375) it is stated as the first requirement In a study by Lawrence Lindahl (1949) understood the importance of social need in the second priority whereas in the study by Leite et al. (1998), the most important factor in creating motivation for employment in companies, and social needs of cooperation with gratification enthusiasm and sincere atmosphere charged. In addition, the study Ssylaalksva (2002) After physiological and safety needs, social needs is the third priority. Research from this study is that all of this was not consistent. However, in other studies, including research and bracelets, social needs as fourth in importance is the need to study the same direction. Needs were identified in the honor society is important that this requires in the first place. The results with previous results with Tel and Bruner (1961) showed that motivational factors important in terms of the following priority Dignity and respect in the workplace, encourage skill acquisition is consistent. And the results Frkhtar (1370), Ebrahimzadeh (1374) and Amir (1375), which shows the need dignity and respect is third in the hierarchy of needs Maslow's needs hierarchy does not match with the research Fariba Karimi (1374) and bracelets (1373) needs of honor was second in the hierarchy of needs. The research revealed that people need self-actualization needs of self-actualization as the least important factor in motivation is physical education teachers raised.. However, it should be noted that lack of attention to security needs is the most important factor that could cause damage to the morale and motivation of teachers of physical education. It can be noted about the need to respect and to provide a simple yet sincere thanks to PE or Director of Education In addition to pleasing a person's confidence in him and strengthened by revealing individual talents and skills will be. According to research, the physiological needs, safety needs, demand respect and self-realization, there is no significant correlation with employment status and teaching experience. Ebrahimzadeh the Foomani & Saatchi In a study done in 1374 concluded that none of the motivational needs of the suppliers employment situation and job experience, there is a significant difference. In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, requirements and needs of self-actualization honor is the first and fifth, respectively, in priority whereas in respect of research needs, physiological needs, safety needs, social needs and self-actualization needs first to fifth respectively, with priority It seems that the difference between the research communities in terms of cultural, social, economic status, employment status, number of samples, and internal religious beliefs could be useful in prioritizing needs. In Subject can no longer be said that in this study the physiological needs and safety requirements other than the requirements as regards the basic needs based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs discussed which suggests that the two need not satisfy the physical education teachers Mahmudabad county. Perhaps because of the lack of attention to the economic status of physical education teachers and low income level (physiological needs), non-secure environment, protected from intimidation, physical and mental, occupational safety and security issues such as a physical education teacher in the classroom risks (need requirements), is. What seems more likely is that the need to honor that includes a sense of achievement and success, and being able to achieve acceptance and recognition by others, and have a particular insight into a person's spiritual values Can be almost pale material incentives and spiritual needs that are focused on higher-order needs to reveal. Due to these reasons and results of studies done in the country, we can say that the theory of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is rejected round and physiological and safety needs as basic needs in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs are located in first and second place In the present study, the second and third most important in terms of importance and need to respect the most important requirement is the top priority. The findings suggest that more experienced teachers of physical education and teaching experience and further work that all of them are hired Due to a better understanding of the work environment, communication with managers and colleagues, higher status and independence and skills the need for love and affection in teaching physical education teachers who work less than the lower, they. In view of the above it can be concluded that motivation all the needs of the majority of the five physical education teachers the high level of participation in the Study comparing the average incentive needs Maslow's five-factor, the most important factor job evaluation and make the maximum effort in working for the research community, satisfaction, dignity and respect. In general theory of Maslow recommends that managers have to note that not satisfy the needs of human beings to think when you are engaged and this may have a negative impact on attitudes and behavior. Accordingly, providing opportunities for satisfaction of needs may have a positive motivational result.
In this way physical education teachers can understand the needs and your talents, your behavior and personality guided towards perfection and thrived. This leads to self-realization; self-actualization is life education organization and sponsor. The accountable Physical Education can meet the needs of their physical education teachers one by one and examine the problems caused by not meeting their needs as much as possible for them to fix. This is only possible, according to Maslow, provide a suitable environment for the individual To their capabilities and skills and talents to realize his potential and talents of the judgment and discretion of the. And awarded by the Department of Education because of self-respect, self-diagnosis made with good quality.
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