Библиографическое описание:

Рахматова Х. У. Interpretation of war tragedy in literature (as “the Birthmark” the story of Mikhail Sholokhov) [Текст] // Актуальные вопросы филологических наук: материалы IV междунар. науч. конф. (г. Казань, октябрь 2016 г.). — Казань: Бук, 2016. — С. 21-23.


The subject of war has become update topic in the literature of all nations as well in Russian literature. Writers tried to show the truth about the terrible time to readers with great skill. Because when readers have imagination about war, they realize dignity of a quiet peaceful current life; feel a deepening sense of thanksgiving. Looking back on the mirror of history by high artistic value, they comprehend that our ancestors gained present peaceful days with many difficulties, are informed about the black days of past. Indeed, our President Islam Karimov said: “No future without historical memory”.

In the literature of XX century 20 years, Soviet Union`s victory over Civil war is conveyed widely. The victory of Soviet Union against the Civil war was shown great pride in the creative works. In fact, this war was a human tragedy. The First World War, the revolution and especially the Civil War were a test for all the people of Russia. It is keenly aware of the consequences of political events of the Cossacks. Freedom-loving nature of the people could not come to terms with the fact that well-established for centuries, the adjusted life is falling apart. But the worst was not even that. Split occurred among people spread on opposite sides of the former neighbors, friends and family members. Hey killed each other for a plot of land and a slice of bread

Russian the writer Mikhail Sholokhov was able to recreate in small works unique flavor and originality of the way of life of local people. He paid particular attention to the ideals and moral convictions, initially based on kindness and humanism, but crossed the fratricidal war, paid much attention to the horrors of civil war, image analysis and its impact on the fate of people. Artwork «Birthmark», written in 1924 and marked the beginning of the cycle of «Don stories» was the first in his work, which was to show the truth about the war terrible.

Many are confused naturalism and non-traditional image of the civil war, but that is what has allowed the writer to convey the true extent of the tragedy. It is guided by these principles when writing a story «Birthmark» Sholokhov.

Plot of the story is quite simple and is built in a chronological order with small deviations in the past. The main character — Nicholas Mishka, a young squadron commander of the Red Army. Nikolka'm eighteen guy experienced the Cossacks, who respected him for his courage and bravery. Despite his young age, he has already led a squadron of six months and during that time managed to break the two gangs. This was the great merit of his father, a prominent Cossack, «perished» another German war. It was he who instilled in his son the courage, endurance, love of horses: in five or six years, taught his son to stay in the saddle. And his father went Nikolka (and this will be based on further analysis of the works of Sholokhov) birthmark on the left foot, the size of a pigeon's egg.

On a comparison of two strong characters builds the story «Birthmark» Sholokhov. An analysis of the internal state of an elderly Cossack, 7 years old have not seen his father's house — the next part of the work. He was a German prisoner, he served with Wrangel, visited Constantinople, and now has returned to his native land at the head of the gang. Three days went by gang squad Nikolka, then located at the miller, as reported last Red Army. And now it is rushing to the young brave Cossack Ataman. His anger is still covered by a beardless face and desire to achieve the goal — even the bullet did not stop him — caused bitterness among chieftain. Besides the binoculars on his chest clearly talking about the rank of the soldier. He flew to his chieftain, and by a wave of bombs young body went limp. Experience triumphed over youth removed. After that, with a stocking pulled the old Cossack boots with chrome legs, and under it (incredibly truthful and emotionally strongly depicts the episode Sholokhov) — mole. Analysis of the story reaches a particularly acute precisely in this scene, which became the culmination of all narrative.

At the same time realized a lot chieftain had seen his son, suffering and pain filled his soul: «Nikolushka!.. Krovinushku mine!»...Bloody struggle unfolded scattered on different sides of native people, making them bitter enemies. His father was unable to forgive himself for killing his son — gritted his teeth «steel Mauser» and fired.So tragically finished the story «The Birthmark» Sholokhov.

Description and analysis of the characters' behavior shows how the war was repugnant to their nature, especially Nikolka. With fifteen years he had to fight, and at eighteen he looked already tired of human life: a net of wrinkles around the eyes, hunched back. His dream is to get an education and have not come true. The only bright spot left for Nikolka memories of a quiet peaceful life, when she was still alive mother and father was not listed in the missing. These nostalgic paintings make it clear how disgusted he was by itself the thought of having to go into battle again. Since the very beginning of the story «The Birthmark» Sholokhov (a summary of the thoughts of the hero looks eloquently) makes it clear to the reader that the war — is something unnatural, alien to human nature. Her dream is to return to civilian life as the first plow and an old chieftain, everyone is trying to stifle not let him hop nostalgia.

Unusual conversational speech and expression attracts the product «mole». Sholokhov — the problems associated with this story directly — strengthens the feeling of tragedy through the conversion to the bright folk images. Spoken word helps to better understand the emotional state of the protagonist. Then, on the eve of the deadly battle, the wolf in front of people comes out of the log, listening and slowly back away. By tradition, the wolf symbolized the people hungry, embittered, usually solitary animals, causing pity rather than fear. It thus appears in the story of the old chieftain.

Another one predator enters into the story «Birthmark» Sholokhov. Analysis of the last scene with the vulture that same evening of the murder, flies from the head chieftain and dissolves in the sky suggests a tired, tormented soul Cossack, leaves the body and the ascending skyward.

«Mole» — the entire contents of the story cannot leave anyone indifferent — makes really think that in the difficult conditions of devastation and implacable enmity people embittered, forget about humanism and compassion. The author does not mention this, and other stories, right or wrong, because in a situation like this simply cannot be. The Civil War was a human tragedy, which should never be forgotten — it wants to describe the reader's attention Sholokhov. Birthmark (analysis of the story leads to this conclusion) becomes a symbol of unbreakable blood relationship: from Nikolka it is the same as his father. Therefore, in opposition to the characters (father raised a worthy son), there are no winners, it was originally contrary to human nature.

To sum up, Civil War became a disaster as a result of which were completely destroyed by the moral norms and destroyed existing communications between people. This culmination of the story «Birthmark» Sholokhov. Analysis of the actions and feelings of the characters is a confirmation of the idea. The first piece sets the tone for the entire cycle, and before the eyes of the reader one after another terrible pictures come alive, telling about the immeasurable human misery. And I want to invoke to all inhabitants of the earth: «People, come to your senses! If a brother kills his brother and father — son if everything was drowned in a sea of ​​blood, something to live on?»


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