Основные направления улучшения качества услуг туризма в экологически ориентированном регионе
Рубрика: Биоэкономика и экополитика регионов
Опубликовано в Биоэкономика и экобиополитика №2 (3) декабрь 2016 г.
Дата публикации: 28.03.2017
Статья просмотрена: 3 раза
Таппасханова Е. О., Кашежева Р. Л. Основные направления улучшения качества услуг туризма в экологически ориентированном регионе // Биоэкономика и экобиополитика. 2016. №2. С. 56-63. URL https://moluch.ru/th/7/archive/47/2142/ (дата обращения: 26.05.2018).
В статье рассматриваются некоторые теоретические и практические аспекты улучшения качества туристических услуг. Приводятся подходы к оценке качества услуг, в частности типы качества Дж. Джурэн и В. Эдвардс Деминг, качество образцовых услуг различий, метод «Таинственного Покупателя» (Таинственные Покупки) и типология элементов обслуживания ЭР Кедотта и Н. Турджен. Учитывая, что улучшение качества услуг в сфере туризма и отдыха во многих отношениях зависит от человеческого фактора, возникает необходимость мотивации персонала и его компетентного обучения. Авторы также полагает, создание информационного центра улучшит качество туристических услуг, обосновывается также необходимость его создания в регион, повышения эффективности предоставления инфраструктуры услуг туристической сфере.
Ключевые слова: туристические услуги, качество обслуживания, подготовка кадров; мотивация персонала, система обучения персонала.
In article theoretical and practical aspects of improvement of quality of tourist services are considered some. Approaches to assessment of quality of services, in particular quality types J. Dzhuren and V. Edwards Deming, quality of model services of distinctions, a method of "the Mysterious Buyer" (Mysterious Purchases) and a typology of elements of service AYR Kedotta and N. Turdzhen are given. Considering that improvement of quality of services in the sphere of tourism and rest in many respects depends on a human factor, there is a need of motivation of personnel and its competent training. Authors also believes, creation of information center will improve quality of tourist services, also need of his creation to the region, increases in efficiency of granting infrastructure of services to the tourist sphere is proved.
Keywords: tourist services, quality of service, training; motivation of personnel, system of training of personnel.
In the interpretation of the concept of the quality of services among researchers disagree. Thus, well-known scientists and leaders of the "quality" movement J. Juran and W. Edwards Deming in his works considered four types of quality . The first type of quality they include the properties and characteristics of services that cause the customer a sense of satisfaction or dissatisfaction. It relates to the provision of additional features and product properties, and accordingly, increases the costs. However, consumers tend to agree to reimburse the costs and become more willing to purchase the service.
By the next quality type J. Juran and W. Edwards Deming include technical and functional quality. The first they attributed all that is left at the client after the interaction with the hotel staff. The second – the process of providing goods or services to the client. It can improve the customer experience, and may lead to feelings of frustration. To the authors also include a functional system of service quality aspect.
The third type of quality authors include social quality. It is a culture of quality, which is determined by the behavior of employees, providing services to the client.
The fourth type of quality J. Juran and E.Deming include public (ethical) quality that can not be evaluated by the client prior to the acquisition of services, and it is often difficult to assess, and after the goods or services already acquired (Figure 1).
American scientists A. Parasuraman, Zeytaml B. and L. Berry, having studied the problem of quality, created their own model. The authors consider five models gaps arising from the dissatisfaction with the customer service provided by him .
The first gap – the gap between, what consumers expect and perception of consumer expectations management.
The second gap – the gap between the perception of the direction of the company's expectations of consumers and how these perceptions are embodied in the quality of services.
The third gap – the gap between the specifications of the quality of services, and quality of services, which provides the organization. The reasons may be very different here.
Figure 1. Types of quality by J. Juran and W. Edwards Deming
Fourth gap – the gap between the information given by the organization, and the actual quality of the services it provides.
Fifth gap – the gap between what consumers expect and how they perceive the services received. This discontinuity occurs when there are one or more of the preceding gaps.
American scientists have found that consumers, regardless of what types of services they receive are mostly simple criteria for determining quality indicators: the availability of services, communication, competence, courtesy, safety, etc.
The quality of management in recent years, a concept often used as a perception that has led to the need to use tourism and recreation such concepts as consumer perception of the process of service and quality of service, evaluation of the quality of customer service.
In this regard, it is interesting solution to the problem of quality of experience offered by H. Kano, which considered three types of consumer reaction to the three characteristics of the group, the services provided .
The first group of characteristics N. Cano product called "mandatory" in the view of consumers it is self-evident characteristics. If they are carried out, it has virtually no effect on the increase of consumer product value, but their failure to – drastically reduce it.
The second group of characteristics, called N. Cano «quantitative», a direct impact on customer satisfaction, and increases as the quantitative increase in this indicator.
The author also highlighted the characteristics of the third group and called it the «Surprise», the lack of which in the product the customer is not deterred – he simply did not expect (see Figure 2).
The company using the model N. Cano can assess the impact of their actions on the perception of customer value and customer service can find out what properties the product must necessarily have, and what not.
Japanese experts on quality offer its approach to the quality of service parameters arbitrarily classifying it on the basis of their relevance to the customer. According to them, one should distinguish between the parties 6 quality «internal quality»; «Material»; «Intangible»; «Psychological quality»; «Time of service»; «Social quality» (ethical). Improving the quality of service takes into consideration all these factors.
Figure 2. Three characteristics of the type provided by N. Kano services
For our study is of interest as a model Kedotta-Turgeon, which allows you to build a fairly simple model of the perception, of the client and service quality evaluation. The main element of the model is the quality of service card. The construction is based on a typology of quality standardization of perception and evaluation of the client on each individual service elements. The level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with each service element is the criterion for classification in this typology and, accordingly, is a measure of its compliance with the expectations.
Critical. These are the factors which must be satisfied primarily based on the minimum and standards acceptable to the customer. If a company puts the task to survive in the competitive market, it must do everything possible to give customers precisely this level of service.
Neutral. These elements in contrast to the critical creates the most neutral zone and does not affect the experience. These include: The color of clothes of employees, the color inks, the location of car parks, etc. The costs of special administrative effort is required here, since they have little effect on the level of customer satisfaction.
Satisfying. These elements may well cause a positive reaction on the part of customers if their expectations are met, but the reaction on their part can not any follow if expectations satisfied or not satisfied.
Profit disappointment. These elements, if they are not well executed, more likely to cause a negative reaction. At the same time, there was no reaction followed, if done right or well .
Guidelines and hotel staff, as well as an understanding of the customer service quality and service are often not the same as each of them has its own version of the concept of quality
How does the staff, the quality of his work is largely dependent on how it performs the job descriptions. And this applies to all qualification levels. However, the main role is given to managers of the third qualification level, job responsibilities include primarily innovative management. The quality of their work is determined that the requirements contained in the standards organization, regulations, regulatory processes, job descriptions, technical documentation services, etc.
To determine the quality of the staff can be based on determining how effectively they are used all the documents governing the quality of service and management solutions, as well as – representations of the workers themselves about how the quality of the staff meets the needs of each client.
In recent years, a number of service industries abroad, along with a survey of visitors and staff training, using the method of Mystery Shopping. For example, this method is actively used by such well-known companies like MacDonald's, WaiMart, Target, Taco Bell, Pizza Hut and dr. Only in the United States on Mystery Shopping market turnover of more than 1 billion annually. Dollars .
This shift is due to the fact that as a marketing research survey tool has a number of drawbacks: high costs (sometimes exceeding 5-7 times the cost than using the Mystery Shopping method), the need for a large sample, and lack of reliability of the information obtained. Moreover, customers are much more serious about Mystery Shopping, rather than to the survey.
Training of staff, of course, can seriously affect the quality of service, however, this system does not give confidence that the staff will actually implement in practice the knowledge and skills to work with clients. Constant monitoring of the staff of the organization and need to develop a framework for the use of its results, which staff should be known and, accordingly, influence the size of his remuneration.
All of the above circumstances have caused the transition of most companies in the US service sector and some companies in Western Europe to the method of Mystery Shopping.
Mystery Shopping – an effective tool for assessing the quality of service with the help of experts, acting as a client (Mysterious customers). Trained Mysterious customers visit cultural – leisure facilities, bank, hotel, restaurant, etc., as regular customers. They communicate with the staff, noting the quality of their service, taking note also of its external factors. Mystery client visit, if necessary, can be accompanied by an audio or video recording (natural hidden).
Mystery buyer (client) enters the information gathered in the evaluation form consists of several components for service units. Standard evaluation within the Mystery Shopping program includes fixing performance standards of service and employee comments about the impressions of the visit to the company.
Mystery Shopping program provides an opportunity to identify and analyze the most objective information as to the strengths and weaknesses of the work with clients and look at the customer service organization through the eyes. Mystery Shopping program is an effective form of service quality control and allows you to receive the results of both quantitative and qualitative.
This system stimulates the staff evaluation of work to improve its quality of service, providing its customers with an excellent service. This is understandable, since – as the information received directly affects the certification of personnel and department heads, on the size of bonuses, various allowances for staff career.
The data collected using the method of Mystery Shopping, allow you to see the shortcomings in service personnel and take appropriate measures to optimally solve the problem issues.
Information obtained by using Mystery Shopping, can be used by management in communications with the division workers. Identified by this method defects should be considered in groups at the meetings, which will help to develop a specific action plan to address them.
Information obtained in quality of service in the organization, is used to identify general trends in the level of service provided by the company. The company has the ability to compare them with the market trends, the actions of the enterprise competition, changes in customer preferences, and so on. D. This significantly increases the efficiency of decision-making on the allocation of available resources.
Mystery Shopping Program development is carried out in 10 stages .
Phase 1 Formation of the program's objectives
Phase 2 Development of evaluation criteria
Stage 3 Selection
Stage 4 Selection of hosts
Stage 5 Training Visitors
Stage 6 Evaluation Procedure
Stage 7 Quality Control
8 stage of information analysis
9 stage of Use
10 Phase Monitoring changes
In the first stage, the «Formation of the program's objectives». Depending on customer needs Mystery Shopping program goals may be different. At this stage, it is also determined to be specifically evaluated and purpose of the information received.
At the second stage, the "Development of evaluation criteria." They should be consistent with the objectives of the program and sequence of actions the customer and the staff at the company and based on the service standards adopted by the company.
In the third stage, the authors called «sample» is defined by the number of customers, carrying out an assessment. To calculate the required number of observations (estimates) used methods of statistical calculation of the sample size. If the number of observations is not enough, it can lead to a distortion of the results in determining the level of service in the company's divisions, especially not permissible when using Mystery Shopping system for motivation of department heads. If the number observations will be high, the cost of the program may increase and not be effective.
«Selection of visitors» – the fourth stage of the program, where the selection is carried out visitors (customers), the most important aspect of which is the consideration of their characteristics: demographic, behavioral and psychographic.
«Training Visitors» – the fifth stage of the program. At this stage, each the visitor (client) runs a training and testing for the project. Held 2 types of training: general and specific.
The purpose of the general training – improve the skills of the visitors without reference to the work ahead, the specific training related to the upcoming work.
The sixth stage is called «evaluation procedure». Visitor Behavior (client) is governed by a set of documents. First, the script behavior, and secondly, a legend Visitor, thirdly, route maps, etc.
«Quality Control» – the seventh stage of the program. The condition for the success of the program is the quality of information collected. For this purpose, various methods. To achieve the high quality of the program can be addressed to qualified professionals providing these services.
The eighth stage is called «data analysis». At this stage, the program is carried out analysis of the information on which the pre-designed plan that includes a list and typology of the output. Input from the information processing speed and depends obtaining new and updated information and tselom- stage efficiency.
At the 9th stage, called the author of the program «Use of information», the data are transferred to the customer, who uses the information within the organization, and determine in advance of its decision and the addressees.
10 step programs, «Monitoring of changes». It should be noted that the Mystery Shopping program will only be effective when it is carried out regularly. It is desirable that it is executed at intervals of a month before the quarter. The level of service at the enterprises, which executes the program remains high only when it is systematically updated to reflect the changes.
Customers Mystery Shopping programs can serve companies that provide various services to the market (retail chains, banks, restaurant chains, hotels, airlines, etc.).
Given the characteristics of the quality of services, a variety of hotel classification systems have been developed in international practice. It is known, for example, that exists in the world currently about 35 tourist hotels classification systems. Cultural and national characteristics, the historical development of different states, and other factors hinder the creation of a unified global system of hotel classification.
The most famous in the world classification system is a so-called star system, which is used in countries such as Russia, Italy, France, Egypt, Turkey and others. The higher her stardom, the greater the variety of services offers its customers hotel.
For the most popular classification system applies to the French national system, which divides the tourist hotels on six categories. Five of them are awarded a certain number of stars. In European countries, especially allocate the German classification, which has much in common with the French classification. According to it, the hotel is divided into 5 classes and assigned stars.
Along with the traditional stars, there is a system of classification of hotels with the help of «letters» and «crowns» in the world. In Greece, for example, along with a stellar classification of existing alphabetic classification system. The Greek system divides the hotels into four categories: A, B, C, D, which roughly corresponds to 4,3,2,1 on the star classification.
Rather complicated classification system adopted in England hotels. On the facade of hotels in England, you can not see the stars, and crowns. If you take away one of the total number of crowns, so that we can transfer to the hotel "star" category.
The most correct, in our opinion, can be considered the classification proposed by the Association of British Travel Agents. According to this classification is assigned a one star hotel, if it is located in the city center and has few amenities. Two stars is assigned to the hotel has a bar and restaurant. If the hotel has a fairly high level of service, it is assigned a three star. Four Star is assigned to a hotel that offers very high quality accommodation and excellent service. Finally, the hotel is assigned a five-star, when she has a level of service and top class accommodation.
Quality of tourist services is closely linked to work with people. Therefore, it is important that all staff were a single entity and were well motivated.
In modern science, there are various theories and models of motivation. Among them are the theories of Abraham Maslow, Rensisa Likert, Victor Vroom, Douglas McGregor, Frederick Herzberg and others . However, these studies did not contain precise and prepares recommendations for motivation in the field of tourism personnel, but by studying their basic position may develop its program of staff motivation. It is noted that stimulation of material to be used in combination with the use of other types of remuneration.
Research conducted at the enterprises of tourist – recreational sphere of the Republic of Kabardino -Balkarskoy (KBR), have shown that the main weak staff motivation parties are as follows:
- The lack of clearly designed incentive program and motivation of the staff;
- Lack of motivation of the personnel in material and moral terms;
- The absence of the relationship between the remuneration of the staff and the results of his labor;
- High enough registration and use of skills of employees, no elaborated system of promotion and career development.
Labor incentive system at the enterprises of the republic Broadcasting Company may, in our view, be supplemented by:
1. The creation of a special department for the management and organization of labor.
2. The improvement of socio-psychological motivation techniques.
3. Introduction of motivators that do not require special expenses of the enterprise.
Intensive development of tourist business, which is characteristic for the twenty-first century, more and more confirms the fact that improving the quality of services in tourism and
recreation without training in modern times becomes very problematic.
This issue pay close attention around the world. According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO) in the early 90s, there were 105 in Europe and 139 higher secondary schools of a tourist profile in America – on 6 and 17 in Asia and the Pacific – 14 and 35. The number of educational institutions, preparing staff for the tourism industry in the UK is 37, Spain and Italy – 28, France – 22; the Americas highlighted Canada – 25, USA – 22 and Chile – 12, and in the Asia-Pacific region – Australia – 16, China – 6, Philippines – Japan 5 – 4.
In Russia, which is the WTO forecasts, by 2020, will enter the top ten most visited countries in the world, today operates 181 tourists high school, 116 secondary specialized educational institutions that produce annually 13 thousand professionals, of which 70% – Higher education .
For the KBR the problem of improving the professional training system for the tourism industry is of particular importance due to the fact that the development of tourism, as stated in government documents recently, considered a priority in the state and society. KBR has great tourist and recreational potential. In it, there are 232 companies operating in the sphere of resorts and tourism (table). Republic is ready at the same time accommodate about 15 thousand tourists and vacationers. The number of employees of the analyzed areas of activity during the reporting period amounted to 3627 people, most of whom do not have tourism education. In short, the existing potential in this important field is not used .
The peculiarity of the tourist activity is that it is multidisciplinary nature, which creates some contradictions in the staffing of tourism and recreation sector and its compliance with modern requirements.
Therefore, for all countries and regions are characterized by two basic systems of training for the tourism sector:
- specialized training for businesses specifically involved in the production of the tourist product;
- training for popular professions of related sectors of the economy [2, 10].
Both the first and second training system have educational levels: the higher the educational level, the average educational level and the lowest level (Technology – Executive). This training system allows for a multivariate training for this sector in terms rapidly changing market. However, the success of the solution of this problem depends on the joint efforts of all stakeholders.
Research has shown that one of the main factors hindering the development of the region is the lack of SEC qualified specialists, professionals in this critical area of the region. The solution will be the introduction in the training process
Objects of tourist – recreational complex KBR
Climbing camp, sports facilities and resort
Private accommodation facilities for tourists in the Elbrus region
Principles of Continuing Education: School – High School – school – college – university – retraining, training, acquisition of a second specialty, training in-country study tour.
To the development of staffing systems in line with the modern requirements of development of tourist and recreational sphere of the KBR, it is also necessary to solve the following tasks:
1. Conduct market research to identify regional demand for specialists in the field of tourism, both in territorial and professional sections.
2. Conduct building activities in the country unified system of training and retraining.
3. Develop appropriate methods of training and retraining for individual tourism professions.
4. Conduct certified specialists in the sphere of tourist and recreational services (first of all guides and instructors of sports and recreational forms of tourism).
5. Establish a regional center for training, retraining and advanced training of tourism personnel.
6. Provide scientific and methodological base of tourist and recreational sphere of the republic, as is done in developed countries.
7. Conduct in scientific and practical conferences republic and actively participate in international tourism events.
8. Consider the experience of leading foreign countries .
An important role in improving the quality of services can play in the region, the creation of «Tourist – Information Centre» (TIC), whose main tasks are to collect, study and disseminate information about tourist, cultural, historical and socio-economic resources, as well as dissemination of information about the best tourist KBR proposals and the possible dangerous situations that may arise in their way. The center should work closely with other organizations. This is the government and commercial organizations, professional associations, publishing houses and the media. The Center hotline should be set up for tourists, allowing them to get quick and timely assistance in the event of any – any emergency.
The totality of these measures should be aimed at improving the quality of service and security of tourists coming to the KBR.
Experience of the functioning of such a center in many cities and regions of our country shows, that his work brings tangible benefits, saturating the market of tourist services and offering its guests a new level of comfort and safety. On the possibilities and benefits of TIC, the need for it in regions with tourist – recreational specialization notes in his works Kiseleva IA, Tramova AM and AO Chernyakina [5, 15].
All the marketing possibilities for solving the problem (Figure 4) are used with the TIC:
– Use a single reservation service for tourist potential of the KBR;
– Use the Internet portal of the KBR, which shall include all matters rest as much information as possible;
- Made up of the marketing plan, which will allow to correctly determine development of strategies for the future of the enterprise, methods of promotion services in the market;
– Implemented a range of marketing techniques and strategies that can take the form of the introduction of a variety of activities and programs.
It should also be the creation of web – portal that provides comprehensive information on the different languages, creating the clock contact – center, as well as the creation of road infrastructure tourist cities, which is equipped with signboards.
In order to improve infrastructure providing tourist services you must:
- Carefully examine the state of the most important tourist services for consumers that would receive information about trends and developments in the market and determine the effectiveness of tourism enterprises in the region;
- Use methods and marketing tools;
- Objects of study should be the processes that occur during the development of tourism;
- Explore the internal environment of the tourist enterprises, in order to compare these figures with those of competing companies;
- To explore the environment, which should include a study of conditions of tourist services market, as well as customers and competitors;
- Examine the state of the market in order to obtain information about possible mediators and partners;
- With competitors to determine their own competitive research benefits, conduct SWOT-analysis, which includes the study occupied by competitors market share, quality of service and consumer attitudes;
- Explore the consumer in order to obtain data on the factors that they are guided in the exercise of choice. To conduct the development forecasts of expected demand, market segment and select target market segments;
- During the investigation services themselves determine their quality, compliance with state standards, technical and economic indicators, consumer demands. All this will enable the individual to develop a list of services tailored to market needs, enhance competitiveness, to analyze the possibility of providing new services, etc.;
- Explore the distribution channels in order to determine effective ways and means speedy bringing tourist services to the consumer and their implementation;
- Explore repyutinga system, which will focus on the identification of the tools and techniques that will create new or improve existing business image. Such information will enhance the effectiveness of communications service;
- Explore advertising and branding to assess advertising and branding campaigns and determine the prospects for improving them .
Quality of service level is largely determined by corporate culture of the enterprise – the total for all employees practiced system of values, moral and ethical norms, rules, customs, and its image. So, if a company has a good image, it takes the client to the services above, and it can not pay attention to some shortcomings, it faces during the holidays, believing they simply atypical.
So, the quality of services is a multidimensional concept. Before you look for ways to improve it, you need to know clearly, what is the interpretation of the concept of quality of service. In modern science, there are different models reveal this concept. Among them are the model J. Juran and W. Edwards Deming, NM Cano Kedotta-Turgeon, A. Parasuramana, Zeytaml B. and L. Berry. However, the most effective and reliable tool for improving the quality of customer service adopted by an absolute majority of service companies and is actively used in the last few years is a method of estimating the quality of Mystery Shopping services (Mystery Shopper). Kabardino-Balkaria belongs to the Russian Federation regions with tourist – recreational specialization. Therefore, improving the quality of tourist services for it is of paramount importance. The decision on the regional level, the problem involves the use of practice offered by modern science models and improving the quality of tourist services tools, staff motivation, training of highly specialized workers for this field of activity, the creation of the Tourist – Information Centre. Of course, at the highest level should be infrastructure support tourism. It is about ensuring the functioning of the tourism industry: ensuring the normal functioning of enterprises in the tourism industry and the production of tourist services, tourist services: providing tourist life; providing visitors normal access to tourism resources, accommodation, meals tourists, meeting their cultural, utility, communications and other needs.
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