Particularity of the national innovation system | Статья в журнале «Вопросы экономики и управления»

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Рубрика: Экономическое развитие и рост

Опубликовано в Вопросы экономики и управления №2 (18) март 2019 г.

Дата публикации: 07.03.2019

Статья просмотрена: < 10 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Сатторкулов О. Т., Махмудова Г. Р., Махмудова М. Р. Particularity of the national innovation system // Вопросы экономики и управления. — 2019. — №2. — С. 30-34. — URL https://moluch.ru/th/5/archive/117/3965/ (дата обращения: 19.10.2019).



Within the framework of the relevant State program, we have embodied 76 thousand projects for 21 trillion soums and 1 billion dollars, which indicates the scale of our work, aimed to start with good intentions, as 2018 named2018 the Year of Support for Active Entrepreneurship, Innovative Ideas and Technologies. As world experience shows, the stability and competitiveness of the national economy is achieved only by a country that has an active investment policy. Therefore, it can be argued that investment is the driver of the economy, figuratively speaking, it’s the heart. For sure, there is no doubt about it. In all sectors and areas, in all regions with investments come new technologies, advanced experience, highly qualified specialists, entrepreneurship is rapidly developing. [1, p.8].

The development and use of the concept of a national innovation system allows the application of a systematic approach to the evolution of the innovation process in a country's economy. Perhaps one of the main advantages of creating an NIS is the recognition of the crucial importance of knowledge and innovation for the «new» economy, the ability to involve all new elements in the process of creating, spreading and using new knowledge, expanding its participants, and also involving the national economy in world economy system with its trends.

The knowledge-based economy can be represented schematically as a system based on four pillars: the innovation system, the information society, continuing education, and the state innovation policy [2, p.57].

Obviously, before proceeding to the creation of a national innovation system, it is necessary to determine the sources of innovation. On this basis, each country forms its own innovative strategy. The peculiarity of the transition to an innovation-oriented type of development of the economy of Uzbekistan is that the increase in global competition creates challenges to be addressed in the coming years:

− the most important characteristic of global innovation development is the competition for high-quality human capital, and the increasing mobility of highly qualified personnel ensures the spread of knowledge;

− the role of information technology in the process of disseminating knowledge is becoming increasingly important for the further growth of innovative activity, the processes of disseminating knowledge have gone beyond the boundaries of individual economies;

− globalization forces companies to compete at increasingly higher levels of technology and at the same time stimulate the processes of specialization and localization of innovations.

Under these conditions, the “Concept of Innovative Development of the Republic of Uzbekistan for 2012–2020” and the Program “On Priorities of Innovative Development of Uzbekistan” were developed. Today, about 400 organizations are conducting research in the republic. Over the past 10 years, 224 research and development institutions, universities, research and development organizations, research and production enterprises, and small innovation centers have participated in the implementation of state scientific and technical programs. The specificity of the innovations themselves as a factor of economic growth consists in their inexhaustibility arising from the continuous process of generating new ideas, knowledge, information, non wear and tear, and also in their intangible nature [3, p.31].

The interaction of the national innovation system and the general economic system of the country, the understanding and construction of such a connection give greater controllability of technological and innovative development, allow developing competition in the right direction while ensuring compliance with the strategic interests of the state. In our country, great attention has been paid to the issues of innovative activity and the creation of a clearly delineated innovation system in recent years. In this regard, Uzbekistan certainly has great potential, since the country has managed to preserve its scientific potential: the level and volume of scientific research conducted by scientific organizations with the support of the state is high enough, which is one of the most valuable factors of our heritage. However, it should be noted that in the scientific, especially in the scientific and technical industry, the market approach implies such an organization of the process in which scientific results are transformed into science-intensive competitive products or technology. Unfortunately, this process is “stalling” for a number of reasons. We note that, it is impossible in the conditions of weak institutions (weak control over corruption and large scale of the shadow economy, an ineffective judicial system and weak guarantees of the rights of private property, ineffective government, etc.):

− to provide a stimulus for increasing innovation activity that arise only in the conditions of formation of competitive markets and cannot be created exclusively by administrative methods;

− create an innovative industrial small business (start-up). Under the conditions of an imperfect legislative base and weak control over its observance, it is much easier for businessmen to get new tax breaks or privileges from the state, use different schemes for withdrawing part of their profits from taxation, etc., especially than they involve significant risks of not achieving the goals set, since to create and master new innovative technologies,;

− effectively use credit and investment resources, especially in conditions of weak control over corruption. An econometric analysis of world development statistics showed that an increase in investment in science and technology, the training of researchers and technicians employed in the R & D sector, does not necessarily automatically lead to an increase in total factor productivity (TFP);

— to form a national innovation system capable of providing for the borrowing, mastering and generation of new technologies;

− in the conditions of weak state institutions, all incentives for productive economic activity, including for the development of industry, which both create most of the innovations and present the main demand for innovative products, disappear. Trade-intermediary operations started to dominate in the economy. [4, p.153].

Regardless of the chosen “model” or “contour”, NIS should be repelled from several fundamental points. The formation of an innovation system should be guided by the priority tasks of the country's economic development, especially from the standpoint of sustainable development, economic security and technological independence. Clearly marked development vector allows you to focus resources on the main objectives.

References:

  1. The Message of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Sh. Mirziyoyev to the Oliy Majlis. // xabar.uz
  2. Ivanova N. A. National Innovation Systems. M.: Science, 2002
  3. Goyibnazarov Sh.G. Innovative way of development of the Republic of Uzbekistan. // Materials of the collection of theses of scientific-practical conferences. Tashkent: TSUE, 2018. 30–32 p.
  4. Chepel S. Institutional macroeconomic and other prerequisites for activating the factors of innovative development in Uzbekistan. // Materials of the X Forum of Economists. Tashkent: IFMR, 2018.148–155 p.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): NIS, IFMR, TFP, TSUE.

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