Modern way of development of agrarian sphere of Uzbekistan | Статья в журнале «Вопросы экономики и управления»

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Библиографическое описание:

Сатторкулов О. Т., Махмудова Г. Р., Махмудова М. Р. Modern way of development of agrarian sphere of Uzbekistan // Вопросы экономики и управления. — 2019. — №2. — С. 34-37. — URL https://moluch.ru/th/5/archive/117/3955/ (дата обращения: 23.10.2019).



Reforming the system of agricultural management, rational use of land and water resources on the basis of advanced technologies, ensuring food security isour main task in the coming year. We decided to create 48 cotton-textile clusters, in order to bring the growth of cotton by the cluster method to at least 52 percent next year. At the same time, next year we need to comprehensively develop grain and fruit and vegetable growing clusters. Given the fact that clusters are a relatively new practice for us, it is necessary to review the procedures for their state support, including the procedure for subsidizing expenditures, allocating land, and also simplifying the credit system. It is required to revive the experimental-breeding work on the creation of high-quality varieties in seed production. In this regard, the task is to improve the material and technical base of specialized institutions, the creation of seed clusters based on public-private partnership. [1, p.7].

The world experience of scientific and technical progress in the agri-food systems shows that the agrarian sector in developed countries has significant innovative potential. Unlike some industries, in agrarian production there are great opportunities for mass dissemination of innovations, provided sufficient funding and clear organization of affairs. In addition, both agricultural production and processing of agricultural raw materials have their own adaptive abilities, which are used in changing market conditions.

Profound structural changes occur in agriculture. Thanks to the selfless labor and skill of farmers and dehkans, despite all these difficulties, we managed to harvest 6 million 124 thousand tons of grain, 2 million 300 thousand tons of cotton, 8 million 661 thousand tons of vegetables, 2 million 411 thousand tons of potatoes, 1 million 607 thousand tons melon crops, about 2 million 100 thousand tons of fruit, 1 million 314 thousand tons of grapes, 18 thousand tons of cocoons, 1 million 789 tons of meat, 7 million 830 thousand tons of milk. In general, agricultural products were produced for 58 trillion 181 billion soums for the year of hard work [2, p.1].

Innovative processes in the AIC (agro-industrial comlex) have their own specifics. They are distinguished by a variety of industry, functional, technological and organizational features. One of the features of agriculture is that, living organisms — animals and plants — take an active part in the production processalong with industrial means of production.

Innovation means the ability of the AIC to perceive and implement innovations. The following classification of innovations can be distinguished, which reflects the peculiarities of the agrarian sector:

− selection and genetic innovations — a type of innovation that is unique to the agrarian sector, basic research on gene, cell and chromosomal engineering, molecular virology, applied research to expand the gene pools of agricultural plants and animals, their use in breeding. The peculiarity of this type is the long terms of the whole process. Including the actual breeding part and seed production of new varieties, it requires 13–15 years, even under favorable conditions. The selection risks are quite large, which are not only of a purely biological nature, but also of organizational conditions for the realization of a process of a complex nature;

− —production and technological innovations are the results of scientific, including selection and genetic development, find their practical application in the production of new types of agricultural and food products;

− organizational and managerial innovations unite institutional innovations in the formation of fundamentally new organizational and legal structures of an integrated type (agroholdings, agrofirms, technoparks, etc.);

− —economic-social-ecological innovations are innovations in the systems of economic and social relations, in the regulation of production and the market, in the complex development of rural territories, as well as the application of new methods for maintaining ecological balance.

All of these types of innovations have many specific forms of implementation. These are the results of fundamental and applied research, patents for inventions, licenses; documentation on new technologies; innovative projects; national, regional and sectoral innovation programs; scientific and practical recommendations. The market for innovative products and intellectual property is in the initial phase of development. Offers to this market come from breeding centers, seed farms, from information and consulting systems. [3, p.329].

The agri-food sector of Uzbekistan is on the verge of innovative renewal.

As well as full satisfaction in food production of the needs of a growing population,in order to rational use of limited land and water resources, during 2016–2020. It is planned to reduce the sown area for cotton by 185.5 thousand hectares and wheat by 50 thousand hectares, i.e. a gradual reduction in production and government purchases of raw cotton from 3 million 350 thousand tons to 3 million tons. Other more profitable crops are planned to be grown on the irrigated lands [4, p.245].

However, the current level of innovation in the agricultural sector is not able to ensure sustainable development of agriculture. Therefore, there is a need to develop a mechanism for enhancing innovation in line with the state policy of innovative development.

Innovative development and improving the competitiveness of the agrarian sector of Uzbekistan include the following areas: innovative renewal of the country's agriculture; innovative renewal of the branches of the agro-industrial complex supplying agriculture with machinery, fertilizers, energy; innovative renewal of industries processing agricultural products; institutional support for innovative renewal of the agricultural sector; improving the regulatory and organizational mechanism.

Innovative renewal of the agrarian sector of Uzbekistan and raising its competitiveness must be made based on the principles of innovative partnership of the state, science, education and business. Within the framework of such a partnership, the state determines the long-term strategy of an innovative breakthrough, creates legal and organizational-economic conditions for the implementation of innovations.

References:

  1. The Message of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Sh. Mirziyoyev to the Oliy Majlis. // xabar.uz
  2. Congratulation of the President of Uzbekistan Sh. Mirziyoyev in connection with the Day of agricultural workers. // xabar.uz
  3. Alimov A. Priority areas for improving the innovative potential of Uzbekistan, taking into account international experience. // Proceedings of the VI Forum of young economists (v.1). Tashkent: IFMR, 2014.327–333 p.
  4. Soatova H. Increasing the profitability of the production and processing of raw cotton in Uzbekistan. // Materials of the X Forum of Economists. Tashkent: IFMR, 2018.245–249 p.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): AIC, IFMR.

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