The system of methods of forming a professional worldview in students on the basis of chemical knowledge
Исламова, М. Ш. The system of methods of forming a professional worldview in students on the basis of chemical knowledge / М. Ш. Исламова. — Текст : непосредственный // Образование и воспитание. — 2020. — № 5 (31). — С. 60-64. — URL: https://moluch.ru/th/4/archive/181/5707/ (дата обращения: 26.01.2021).
A worldview is a system of views, values and figurative expressions of the world and the person in it, a person's attitude to the surrounding reality and himself, as well as the basic life positions of people, their beliefs, ideas, knowledge and principles of action.
The problem of forming a professional worldview is the personality, the scientific view of the world, the methodology of cognition studied philosophers P. Alekseev, V. Andrushchenko, L. Guberskiy, I.Dobronravova, S. Kirilenko, I. Lakatos, G. Platonov, A. Studied by Spirkin et al.
The formation of students' scientific outlook was the subject of scholars A. Bugaev, M. Golovko, S. Goncharenko, L. Reflected in Zorina's research.
Although there is scientific research by S. Korshak, A. Lyashenko and others on the study of worldview today, this issue still remains relevant.
Most scientists Babansky Yu.K., Galperin P. D, Lerner I.Ya., Mahmutov M. I., Talizina N. F. and others have conducted research on the methods and forms of setting learning goals. In particular, there is a certain amount of theoretical and practical information on how to identify and achieve the goals of modern teaching, education and development of the student's personality.
In the organization of professional orientation of students in the teaching of chemistry, pedagogical goals for each lesson should be clearly developed.
The pedagogical goal is to anticipate the outcome of the collaborative work of the educator and the student. The pedagogical process, no matter how complex and long it may be, begins with defining a goal in the first place. Other constituent parts of the pedagogical process (principle, content, method, means, form) are subject to the established purpose. They are selected according to purpose and coordinated with each other.
The most important part of the pedagogical process is to set and implement the leading learning objectives through infocommunication. It is a modern pedagogical method, in which the teacher decides what to achieve at the end of the lesson, explaining a new topic through information technology, mastering the content and applying it in practice. target.
There are the following traditional ways of defining learning objectives that have a strong place in pedagogical practice:
- Defining goals through the content of the study material.
- Defining learning objectives through teacher activities.
- Defining learning objectives through the internal developmental processes of the student in the intellectual, emotional sphere.
- Defining learning goals through student behavior and activities.
A very clear definition of learning objectives allows for clear control over its achievement. This, in turn, means the timely identification of the level of development of the student's personality, as well as shortcomings in the work of the teacher and their elimination.
I n our opinion, it is desirable to gradually define and implement the objectives of the subject through the use of information technology. Learning objectives, identified and implemented in parts, are formalized in the form of a table: in the column are prepared sections of science, as well as electronic forms and variants of the main types of intellectual activity of the student in mastering these sections and placed in computer memory. Determining the achievement of learning objectives can be done through an electronic assessment method. Electronic organization of learning objectives and learning process and electronic determination of results accelerates and activates the work method. The development of professional thinking is also carried out at each stage.
It is well known that the problem of a person choosing a profession and helping him to choose a suitable profession depends on the developmental needs of the individual and society.
In terms of the problem of career choice, the stages of selection do not arise spontaneously and occur when a person's right to freely choose a profession and specialty is logically consistent with the employer's right to choose professionals, taking into account personal, including professional importance, qualities and labor market requirements.
The effectiveness of professional counseling in school is determined by the breadth and depth of a person’s work process and awareness of it. This knowledge is acquired in school classes, as well as in extracurricular and leisure activities in clubs, and as a result, an individual's propensity for a particular profession increases. The process of career orientation of students can be seen as an integral part of their internal and social professional needs and life, the process of their attitude to the professional field and the formation of personality.
Implementation of vocational guidance in the 70s, organization of consultations on the theoretical foundations of professional activity in the 80s (E. A. Klimov), the role and importance of labor education in vocational guidance of young people (P. R. Atutov, V. A. Polyakov), research on the advantages and characteristics of vocational guidance of students (L. V. Botyakova, M. S. Savina) with the coordinated interaction of school and family has been carried out and implemented.
In the formation of professional relationships, self-management, the process of becoming a subject of their activities is important. In addition, the issues of how to direct the learner to professional and cultural activities, persuasion, justification of trust, the creation of trust in others are very important.
In the development of the essence of the relationship, the professional-cultural relations of the student are directly realized in two different ways.
- Attitudes related to individual characteristics.
- Attitude towards professional and cultural goals.
In this case, the individual (individual) characteristics of the student are directly related, first of all, to his character, attention, memory, willpower. The psychologist must also take into account the characteristics of individuals related to their health, social background, and family circumstances.
In the approach to professional and cultural goals, special attention is paid to the motives of the student's career choice, the dynamics of his growth.
Achieving positive changes in the formation of attitudes in students to a particular profession is associated with the dynamics of the formation of social relations.
The implementation of professional and cultural relations is associated with the ability to properly plan pedagogical educational work, to establish relationships with parents, to properly analyze their profession, to strive for innovation and creativity.
In the organization of vocational training:
— The emergence of social or personal needs for the acquisition of certain theoretical and practical knowledge and career choice;
— The need for the acquisition of theoretical and practical knowledge in a particular field;
— Determining the content of student learning activities;
— The presence of factors of interest in the profession is important in the organization of student learning activities.
All of the above factors must be taken into account in the educational process, in the teaching of a particular subject. It also enriches the content of career guidance for extracurricular activities. Therefore, criteria for selecting the content of the work of vocational guidance of students in extracurricular activities have been developed.
Effective implementation of professional-cultural relations, career guidance in students is associated with the productivity of his thinking process. We consider it as a result of the influence of the following factors.
Time factor. The process of real thinking takes a long enough time (the difficulties in studying thinking are due to this very factor). The process of thinking can be interrupted, the process of solving a specific problem can go from being understood to being incomprehensible (“disappearing”) and sometimes takes a long time and is formed with difficulty.
The result is a factor. The result of the process of real thinking is not given directly to the subject, both within and around him. Otherwise, the thought process of searching for this result would not have taken place.
Content factor. Content is the type of task that a person faces. These are often partly verbal, partly non-verbal, complex issues. In addition to purely intellectual components, social, emotional components are often included in real thinking issues.
Process factor. This factor is to some extent related to the time factor, and the thought process is objectively complex, consisting of analysis, synthesis, abstraction, and generalization.
Environmental factor. The process of thinking takes place not only in the cognitive and personal space (thinking and other cognitive processes, the personal characteristics of the subject, its socio-cultural characteristics interact), but also in the real natural environment.
We will not go into detail on issues related to the problem of thinking, but will consider only the general aspects that are important for the study of the problem of the formation of Professional Polytechnic thinking.
In psychology, thinking is understood as the activity of a subject interacting with an objective being. About this S. L. Rubinstein said, «The process of thinking is first and foremost the analysis and synthesis of what emerges as a result of analysis, followed by abstraction and generalization, which are their derivatives. The laws of the interaction of these processes with each other are the essence of the basic internal laws of thinking» . Let’s look at the content of the following thinking operations that make up thinking.
The analysis consists of breaking down the overlapping relationships into parts, showing the «internal» important properties of things in their legal interaction. Through synthesis, a reverse transition is made from abstract rules to explicit rules. Any ratio, comparison, is a synthesis of communication between different elements.
Analysis and synthesis are two sides of the same thought process. They are interdependent and mutually conditioned. Analysis and synthesis are basic thinking operations because these operations involve any thinking process.
Generalization is a logical method by which an imaginary transition from solitude to generality is made. S. L. As Rubinstein points out, “Thinking takes place in generalizations and leads to generalizations of a higher order” [4, p-113]. Generalization is divided into elementary and scientific forms. In this case, the elementary forms of generalization, as he points out, are carried out independently of the theoretical analysis.
Generalization in teaching represents the absolutization of the generalization view of thinking typical of empirical thinking in traditional pedagogical psychology and didactics, as well as the limited connection of this generalization with the typical difficulties encountered by the learner in mastering theoretical material. Comparison, identification, classification, and regulation are also basic operations of thinking. The unity of analysis and synthesis is evident in the comparison.
Comparison is an analysis, which is carried out by means of synthesis and leads to generalization, a new synthesis. Definition-abstract refers to the consideration of an object in its explicit manifestation and always involves further analysis and synthesis operations.
Classification is when a unit refers to an object or device by appearance, gender, or class. Classification is closely related to regulation. However, if a classification unit establishes that an object or event belongs to a particular type, then the arrangement constitutes a whole group of objects or events. In the process of thinking, certain actions, that is, analysis, synthesis, generalization, are carried out, but as they are generated and strengthened in the individual, thinking like ability is formed, intellect is manifested.
At present, there are various classifications of thinking in psychology, which are mainly divided into theoretical and practical thinking.
S. L. Rubinstein distinguishes practical thinking from theoretical thinking and understands it as a process that takes place during practical activity and is directly focused on solving practical problems. At the same time, thinking that focuses on solving abstract theoretical problems, separated from practical activities that are only indirectly related to practice, is considered theoretical thinking. Thus, in his view, practical and theoretical thinking differ in the tasks set before them. In some cases, “practical thinking, that is, thinking included in practical activity, should be used according to the nature of the problems it has to solve, as well as the results of abstract theoretical activity. Theoretical thinking is a complex form of practical thinking that enters as a component .
L. S. Vygotsky gave the following classification of thinking: figurative, vivid-figurative, and vivid-figurative .
Figurative thinking is a process of cognitive activity aimed at reflecting the important properties of objects (their parts, processes, events) and the essence of their structural interaction [1, p-210].
The type of thinking that is carried out on the basis of further modification, replacement and generalization of the subject content of the images that form the figurative-conceptual images, the figurative-conceptual reflection of existence [1; 209–210-p.]. An important distinguishing feature of this type of thinking is that the thought process in it is directly related to the thinking person’s perception of the environment and cannot take place without it. One can see the solution of a problem directly by thinking vividly and manipulating thought with images.
Explicit thinking — this is one of the skills of thinking, direct interaction with real objects, beginning to determine the properties and relationships of its essence. It provides the initial and initial basis for the generalized reflection of existence [1, p-209]. Its feature is that the process of thinking in it represents the practical transformative activity of man, which is carried out with real objects. This type of thinking is widely expressed in real production — people engaged in polytechnic labor, the result of which is the creation of any Polytechnic object.
The next classification of thinking is productive and reproductive thinking. Professional polytechnic thinking can be as productive and reproductive as its other forms. In reproductive thinking, the subject performs actions that are familiar to him with material that is familiar to him, achieves familiar results, or achieves new results in ways known to him. A distinctive feature of productive thinking compared to reproductive thinking is the ability to independently discover new knowledge. However, this knowledge is subjectively new. Subjectivity arises in the process of solving new learning problems. Their result is the acquisition of new knowledge, previously unknown to this person, but in social experience this discovery is present.
According to S. L. Rubinstein's general theory of psychological thinking, the process of thinking is first of all the analysis and synthesis of what is distinguished as a result of analysis, and then abstraction and generalization, which are their products [4, p- 28]. In considering different types of thinking, S. L. Rubinstein's conclusion is important because it explains the existence of different forms of thinking, including professional thinking: it also depends on the personal characteristics he finds [4, p-367].
In our opinion, professional polyProfessional polytechnic thinking can be considered as a type of practical thinking (as opposed to theoretical thinking) because it is a type of professional activity and is characterized by the following features: the need to solve various problems based on professional activity; high uncertainty of the initial situation; high demands on the level of observation of private details, which are an indicator of hidden complex processes; high level of variability of possible solutions; it is not at all necessary to know in advance the whole solution in solving practical problems, since the implementation of the first stage allows to determine the problem of the next stage; a rapid transition from thinking to practical work and, conversely, a high level of ability to do the work, because the decision-making process, in which thinking is absorbed into practical activity and takes place in a very short time, is directly examined.
The formation of professional polytechnic thinking is a complex process and slow, and depends on a person's general intelligence, practical skills, abilities and other factors. Therefore, the study of the content and structure of professional thinking requires a systematic approach. It is for this reason that we envisioned the process of professional thinking that takes shape in students as a whole, with a number of interconnected organizers, a system that forms a stable interactive and equal unit.
Applying a systematic approach allows us to delve deeper into the essence of the structure of professional thinking skills as a holistic system. In our study, a systematic approach allows us to reveal the interdependence of the components of professional thinking skills and their role in performing mental operations with specific professional objects.
The practical component implies that the resulting solution must be tested in practice, as well as knowledge of tools, materials, technologies and the availability of constructive skills in their use. The methodological significance of the practical component is that the theory of fundamental knowledge and scientific Polytechnic knowledge is formed mainly on the basis of generalized data in practical activities.
T. V. Kudryavtsev noted that the theoretical and practical components of professional polytechnic thinking together form its theoretical and practical component. The speed and ease of transition from theory to practice and vice versa, the ability to move on the theoretical plane, the ability to move on the practical plan testify to the active, creative characterization of this component of Professional Polytechnic thinking.
One of the main components of the educational process in general sciences is laboratory practice. In the process of laboratory practice, the ability to perform practical actions is formed not only in the field of general sciences, but also in the process of working with different objects. The knowledge applied in the process of conducting laboratory practice can then be used to solve production chemical problems in general sciences. All this allows the formation of a practical component of unconditional professional thinking.
To view professional polytechnic thinking as a system, it is necessary to study and describe each component of the structure and determine their interrelationships and interdependencies.
According to V. N. Maksimova, professional polytechnic thinking is based on the system of scientific and polytechnic knowledge, general technical principles of production, polytechnic skills, design skills. «The content of this knowledge is not preserved in the original form in the structure of polytechnic concepts, but in this polytechnic concept the form changes, transforms, taking into account the objects whose properties are strengthened» .
A systematic approach to the study of the process of forming a professional worldview based on chemical knowledge is to analyze the structure of professional polytechnic thinking in the current conditions of polytechnic development, it is necessary to enrich the structure of professional Polytechnic thinking in order to be able to consider it as a holistic structure corresponding to the current level of technical development. Relying on a systematic approach then suggests the need to develop tools to develop all components of the identified professional polytechnic thinking structure in order to uncover a new quality .
According to VD Shadrikov, motives and goals are the direction that determines the direction of activity, especially creative activity .
With the rapid development of science, engineering and technology today, research — operational activity is becoming one of the main types of professional activity of the future vocational education teacher. Based on the above scientific analysis:
In the process of teaching science in the upper grades of secondary schools, it was found that the content of vocational guidance of students is not formed at the level of demand for science teachers.
It was argued that a professional worldview can be formed on the basis of intellectual knowledge, on its own, on the basis of daily experience, or as a result of the interaction of different worldviews or consciously through theoretical development of fundamental ideas, ideas, principles.
It has been consistently studied that the effectiveness of vocational guidance, professional counseling, the formation of a professional worldview in school is determined by the breadth and depth of a person's work process and self-awareness.
It was argued that the professional orientation of students plays an important role in the effective formation of their professional outlook, socio-professional relations, psychological qualities that require professional growth.
Professional worldview is a system of worldviews, which is the basis of systemic factors, social values of a particular profession, a holistic thinking about professions.
Criteria for the formation of students 'professional worldview, the development of technology that combines the content and methods of acquiring science and professional knowledge with the processes of professional and personal development, self-development, the formation of students' professional worldview were theoretically defined.
The content of work on the introduction of e-learning, vocational guidance of students in the classroom and extracurricular activities has been developed.
The methods of formation of professional polytechnic thinking skills, identified and tested in pedagogical and psychological research, have been generalized on the pedagogical basis of professional polytechnic thinking in the vocational orientation of chemistry.
So, we propose to introduce a system of the following methods of forming a professional worldview in students on the basis of chemical knowledge:
- Application of lesson objectives on the subject of science with further improvement of traditional (educational, pedagogical, developmental) forms (cognitive, psychomotor, affective);
- Formation of professional and cultural relations in students;
- Introduction of professionally oriented education in the teaching of science in high school students (in our research work, on the example of chemistry);
- Formation of professional polytechnic thinking in students in the teaching of chemistry;
- Development of technology that combines the content and methods of acquisition of science and professional knowledge, forming the professional worldview of students, with the processes of professional and personal development, self-development
- Continuous and sequential organization of e-learning throughout the training period, etc.
- Vygotsky L. S. Collected works. In 6 volumes — M.: Pedagogy, 1983. — T. 3. — 365 p.
- Kudryavtsev T. V. The study of psychological characteristics of the professional formation of personality // Methodological problems of increasing the effectiveness of psychological and pedagogical research. — M.: 1985. — S. 20–23.
- Maksimova V. N. Intersubject communications in the learning process — M.: Education, 1988. — 102 p.
- Rubinstein S. L. Fundamentals of General Psychology — SP6. Peter, 1999.-705 p.
- Shadrikov V. D. Problems. systemogenesis of professional activity. — M., 1982. 126 p.