Psychological features of pedagogical influence in primary school
Таштанова Ё. Д. Psychological features of pedagogical influence in primary school // Образование и воспитание. 2019. №2. С. 62-63. URL https://moluch.ru/th/4/archive/121/4062/ (дата обращения: 23.10.2019).
The pedagogical impact on a person is a system of pedagogical techniques that allow solving one or other pedagogical tasks. Another important concept in this series is the form of organization of pedagogical influence. The following most important forms of organization of pedagogical influence are distinguished:
1) educational process;
2) extracurricular work;
3) family education;
4) educational activities of youth organizations;
5) educational activities of institutions culture, art and media (to the extent that it is available).
When a teacher builds an impact on a child, he must take into account many parameters: emotional and psychological state, the general level of cultural and age development, the formation of relationships, spiritual and intellectual development. As a result, on the basis of external manifestations, an initial idea of the child’s personality is formed, which largely determines the nature of the pedagogical influence. V. A. Sukhomlinsky relied on “the individual identity of each person.” Any impact on a person must develop it, so the teacher should avoid punishing children, school and humiliation of the child are incompatible.
The interaction of the teacher and students in the high sense of the word implies something more than mutual influence on each other. To implement the interaction, it is necessary for the interlocutors to accept each other as equal subjects of this communication, which in practice in the system “teacher-student” is not so common. The pedagogical impact, acting as a short moment of intercourse or a prolonged influence, ensures the implementation of functions in accordance with the educational goal. When analyzing the pedagogical impact, one should proceed from its purpose as the initial moment of interaction between the teacher and the student. In other words, the main purpose of pedagogical influence is to transfer the student to the position of a subject who is aware of his own life. The realization of these functions of pedagogical influence is ensured by pedagogical technology, which scientifically substantiates the professional choice of the teacher's influence on the child in his interaction with the world, forms his attitude to this world. The essence of pedagogical technology is revealed through the system of necessary and sufficient elements interconnected and having internal logic. Pedagogical communication, which has a focus on “opening the student in communication” through the creation of psychologically comfortable conditions for his disclosure as a person. By means of the pedagogical requirement, the subject is ascended to the level of modern culture. Getting as a result of training to the social norm is his individuality in behavior.
The main elements of pedagogical technology are pedagogical communication, assessment, demand, conflict and informative impact. In accordance with the central purpose of the pedagogical impact, communication performs three functions.
1) “opening up” a child for communication is, on the one hand, designed to create comfortable conditions for him in the classroom, in the classroom, at school;
2) “complicity” to the child in pedagogical communication — is achieved as a result of analyzing the interaction of the teacher with the children;
3) “elevation” of a child in pedagogical communication is not an overestimation, but as a stimulant.
Pedagogical assessment involves assessing the quality shown, but not the child’s personality as a whole. To rate means “to establish the degree, level, quality of something.” Given this approach to pedagogical assessment and skillfully, using it in his work, the teacher forms and adjusts the value relations of his students. Sometimes a teacher’s attitude has a stronger impact on a child than a conversation or a lesson. The functions of pedagogical assessment are: to introduce an image at the level of a valuable attitude to the world. Stimulation of the child's activities in mastering this relationship. Correction of his possible relationships in the process of self-development of relationships. Considering the uniqueness and uniqueness of the personality of each child, it is necessary to treat him tactfully and carefully and take into account the significance of the pedagogical assessment for his development.
The pedagogical requirement is the presentation of a child in the process of upbringing the social and cultural norms of attitude and behavior. Human relations have a subjectively free nature and are developed by him independently in the process of accumulation of life experience. The task of the teacher is to influence the formation of value relations of the child’s positions. For this, it is necessary to imagine the relationship between unconditional norms and rules. The implementation of the requirement that is available at the moment of the child’s development also includes taking into account his mental state. The psyche of the student is very mobile: the mood in children can change very often. Effectiveness of the pedagogical requirements increases if the teacher constantly emphasizes his respect for children, and for this, the forms of his treatment and behavior must comply with ethical standards, allowing the teacher to remain at a high level of culture in any situation. Do not neglect the appeals to the students “You”, “Please”. The informative speech and demonstration impact has its own laws, the consideration of which provides the teacher with the possibility of a finer touch in working with children. Considering this question, first of all it is necessary to decide on two concepts — “visual” and “demonstration” material. Demonstration material can be all that is perceived by man. Visual material should have such characteristics as accessibility, persuasiveness, clarity. The principle of clarity, as the principle of didactics was introduced by Ya. Komensky, was given a great role in the educational process by KD Ushinsky.1 Thus, the revealed patterns in this area give a set of technological rules for informative demonstration impact.
Pedagogical conflict is also a contradiction between the subjects, but the subjects are the teacher and the pupil. On the basis of the contradiction is carried out personal development and the development of interpersonal relations. Differ empty and meaningful conflicts. The first occurs on the basis of unstable mental well-being. His resolution does not require complex technology, but only relieving the interlocutor's mental stress by showing care and attention. Depending on the degree of development of the substantive conflict, the technology of its pedagogical resolution is also complicated. The most difficult for students (and teachers) is the type of relationship where it is more difficult to achieve agreement, cooperation. It is not by chance that A. S. Makarenko considered it necessary to cultivate two abilities in schoolchildren: “the ability to command and the ability to obey”. The difference in relationships gives rise to a mismatch of norms, values and interests, which often leads to conflicts.
Specific pedagogical situations, especially acute and conflicting, arise also for experienced and novice teachers. It is very important for a teacher to get out of a conflict situation with dignity and creative satisfaction in their work. Ways to resolve the conflict, especially if he did not go far, are known and accessible to everyone — this is tenderness, humor and a joke. In more difficult situations, we resort to compromise, making concessions to each other, or we appeal to a third, independent person (arbitration court), or we carry out the analysis, trying to understand ourselves and our actions and only in exceptional cases, we use coercion and temporary separation. The teacher has no right to go to create a conflict, if he does not own the technology of conflict resolution. The conflict is created at that moment or is brought to such a level when there is a mutual need for its resolution. Additional elements of educational technology are.
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